The Reality of Gratification and Human Needs

Ayatollah Mohammad Taqi Misbah


This paper which elaborates on Imam Sajjad's Monajat-e-Zakerin(whispered prayer of the rememberers) is about the reality of gratification and human needs. Definitely, man, with his various faculties, has different kinds of gratifications which are expressed throughout mans’ life; because the new needs thatcorrespond with gratification arise alongside the child's development. Some of these kinds of gratification are material and some are spiritual. Their appearance has to do with mans' attachment to them. God's Friends and those who have freed themselves from the material world manage to reach the stage in which they consider pursuing all kinds of gratification other than the remembrance of God as a sin and loss and they seek forgiveness for them. Therefore they take pleasure in nothing except remembrance of God.


Key words: gratification, remembrance of God, gratification, kinds of needs, attachment to God.


A Comparative Analysis of Interpersonal Forgiveness in Islamic Teachings and Psychological Texts

Seyyedeh Fatimah Mousavi


 As a psychological construct and moral virtue, forgiveness, has been the subject of speculation and inquiry in the West for a time due to its positive advantages to individuals and families. Religious beliefs are regarded as the source of forgiveness. Islam takes special care of the different dimensions of this construct. The present paper studies forgiveness in the light of Islam and psychological literature, using a descriptive- analytical method. Moreover, it seeks to provide a theoretical model approach to forgiveness in Islam by comparing between the attitude of each of Islam and psychology toward it. The results show that according to the religious teachings in Islam forgiveness is multidimensional with regard to the requirements of time and place, and the levels of forgiveness differ according to the different levels of individuals’ faith and piety. Furthermore, taking into account the scope of an offence, the offender's motive and the outcome of forgiveness can either be blameworthy or praiseworthy. Studying the dimensions and levels of forgiveness according to the religious teachings in Islam and providing a theoretical model for it can prepare the ground for applying and testing it through experimental studies in an Iranian-Islamic framework.


Key words: forgiveness, Islamic model, psychological literature.


Felicity from the View of Peripatetic Philosophy, philosophy of Illumination and Transcendent Philosophy

Mohammad Salem Muhseni


 Felicity is one of the main concerns of every man and is regarded one of the important issues in religion, ethics, philosophy of ethics and philosophical anthropology, and it has been the subject of speculation and inquiry to Muslim philosophers and religious scholars. The present paper seeks to study the nature of felicity from the view of peripatetic philosophy, philosophy of illumination and transcendent philosophy. Felicity, to these schools, means attaining the kinds of pleasure that correspond to man’s perfection. However, since man’s soul has several faculties and for each of them certain pleasures represent perfection, felicity is multiple and has different levels including sensual pleasure, imaginary pleasure and intellectual pleasure. The highest degree of felicity is the very intellectual pleasure which is realized by intellective soul, and the real felicity is the one which is attained by perceiving the intelligible and attachment to the abstract in theory and by controlling the body in practice. The final point is that peripatetic philosophy, philosophy of illumination and transcendent philosophy all agree about what the nature of felicity is. An analytical-descriptive method is used in this study.


Key words: felicity, real felicity, pleasure, pain, perfection, good.


The Relationship between Ibn Sina's Ethical Views and Ethical Realism

Taghi Mohadder


The question of realism and non-realism is among the most important issues of ethical philosophy which helps in the classification of the different ethical schools according to their major differences. Considering the disagreement about Ibn Sina's ethical interpretation, this paper tries first to explain Ibn Sina's ethical view using a descriptive analytical method, and then expounds its relationship with ethical realism.The research results show that, although Ibn Sina does not regard moral issues as evident, there is no evidence that he does not consider them as narrational and trustworthy or untrustworthy. As for his referring to moral issues as types of accepted premises, this is not against realism, because by saying that ethical rules have no basis except reputation he means that the epistemic basis of ethical rules is reputation. Therefore, Ibn Sina's view seems to be related to the state of assertion, not affirmation. Therefore, the interpretation made by Mozafar and Mohaqiq Isfahani considering Ibn Sina's view as a state of affirmation is unsound.


Key words: Ibn Sina, ethical realism, accepted premisses, ethical issues.  


The Role of Meta-ethical Rules in the Identifying Determining Ethical Priorities

Afzal Boluki\ Mohammad Ali Mosleh Nijad


One of the most essential challenges in human life is the way of recognizing logical behavior and making decisions about intellectual and ethical crises. This paper sheds light on the role of meta-ethical rules in resolving the conflict between ethical principles or actions at times when man encounters two or more ethical principles or actions and needs to respond, and so, because of his limited capacity, fails to decide upon all of them and cannot help choosing the preferred one, with the aim of recognizing the theoretical approaches to distinguishing how to sort out moral priorities and resolve the practical deadlock and prevent the damages which results from performing the preferred act. This paper uses a descriptive-analytical method and summarizes the main points as follows: certain fiqhi rules and principles which can contribute to identifying the priorities when conflict occurs between ethical actions, the general rules of determining the priorities referred to in Qur'anic verses and narrations and the criterion for calculating the value of actions and the expediency they envolve.


Keywords: meta-ethical rules, prevailing rules, the purport of texts, generalizability, the order of expediencies.

Virtual Space: Dimensions, Characteristics and Its Functions in the Area of Identity with Emphasis on Virtual Social Networks

Imman Mohkamkar/ Mohammad Mahdi Hallaj


Social networks are new versions of websites which have been of special interest to users of virtual network the world over.On the other hand, identity in the sense of collection of peoples' material and spiritual dependences in all aspects will certainly be affected by the virtual space, especially virtual social networks. This paper aims at investigating the dimensions,characteristics and functions of social network with regard to identity. Therefore, the paper seeks to answer this question:"what are the functions of virtual social networks in the area of Iranian-Islamic identity", and holds the view that using virtual social networks has blemished the Islamic-Iranian identity of the society. The supposition of this paper is that the harm which comes to the Islamic-Iranian identity is represented in the change in the family' lifestyle which leads to increase in the rate of divorce and violation of families' right to privacy.


Key words: public networks, virtual space, identity, function.


The Contributing  Factors in the Prevalence of Environmental Morals among the Citizens Worldwide.

Seyyed Mohammad Shobeiri, Hussein Meiboodi, ‘Adeleh Saradipour


Economic, environmental and social problems are among the important challenges facing modern man in the present century. Scholars propose that prevalence of environmental morals can contribute to solving these problems. Using a descriptive-analytical method and expounding the necessity of prevalence of environmental morals in society, the present paper provides a model of the contributing factors of the prevalence of environmental morals among the citizens worldwide, and analyzes the interrelationships of these moral in seven steps. The research findings point to ten components which influence environmental morality. Environmental information, environmental awareness, environmental attitude, environmental concern, religion, economic factors, responsible attitude towards environment, accountability, teaching environmental conservation and environmental literacy are among the influential factors  to which this paper refers.


Key words: environmental morality, teaching environmental conservation, citizens.


An Analysis of Moral Themes in Jami’s Baharestan

Narges Tahavvori Mohammad Behnamfar


One of the most important works of morals in the ninth century (‘AH’) is Jami’s book, Baharestan, which, following the example of Sa’di’s Golestan, contains both prose and poetry. Using an analytical- descriptive method, the present paper “analyzes the moral themes in Baharestan”. The research findings show that the approach used by Jami in this work focuses on combatting the self and such vices like worldliness and greediness. He urges people to achieve such virtues like generosity and munificence, chivalry, contentment, and worship of God. When discussing moral issues, Jami considers that man’s ultimate aim is self-purification and aloofness from corruption for the sake of achieving highest degrees of perfection to finally attain nearness to God.

Key words: Baharestan, Jami, morality, moral themes.       


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