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The Distinctive Characteristics of True Shi’ah; Another Picture

Ayatollah Allamah Mohammad Taqi Misbah


This article expounds the characteristics of true Shi’ah in the light of the words of the Commander of the Faithful, Imam Ali (pbuh). Among the characteristics of true Shi’ah are: their constant remembrance of God, disassociating themselves from this world, a sign of theocentrism on their faces. They are monks in the night and kings during the days. They are clement, tolerant, benevolent and honorable. They take land as their carpet, water as their perfume and the Quran as their emblem. They are unknown to people. They are show no concern for worldly posts. They do harm to no one. They are broken-hearted and their needs are but few. They petition no one when in need. They are high-spirited and gentle with people. They keep their self-respect, their needs are few and they are satisfied with a slice of bread.


Key words: Shi’ah, divine good pleasure, faith-orientation, generosity and clemency, covetousness and anger.

An Interpretation of ‘’Olel-amr’’ (Custodians) in the Qur’anic Verse of “Obedience” and Responding to Opponents’ Criticisms in Al-mizan

Eysa Eysazadeh


   The verse 59 in ‘’Surat al-Nisa’’, is one of the evidences of transmited science, which the Shi’ah present, to prove the Imamate of the Pure Imams’ (pbut). This verse is a matter of dispute among Shi’ah and Sunni scholars and commentators. Putting the term ‘’Olel-amr’’ (custodians) beside the order of obeing God and the Prophet is the main factor behind this discrepancy. Sunnis commentators choose different views to determine the meaning of ‘’Olel-amr’’ but Shi’ah scholars consider that it refers to none other than the infallible Imams (pbut). Allameh Tabatabaei, the author of al-Mizan commentary, is one of the greatest Shi’ah commentators who has been able to defend Shi’ah beliefs and intelligently respond to the criticism raised by opponents. Using a descriptive-analytical method, the present paper investigates this moral issue with emphasis on the views of Allameh Tabatabaei.


Key words: obedience, Imamate, ‘’Olel-amr’’ (custodians), al-Mizan, Allameh Tabatabaei.

An analysis of Allameh Tabatabaei’s View on the Unseen and the Visible

Abbas Elahi


The Unseen and the Visible have special meanings in religious doctrines, and this question has been the special concern of Allameh Tabatabaei. Considering Al-Mizan Commentary, this paper seeks to extract his views about the Unseen and the Visible, their meanings and the relationship between them. The findings of this paper show that Allameh considers the ‘’Unseen’’ as an impalpable and extra-material reality which divine revelation has explicitly confirmed. It has also talked about the Unseen and invited people to believe in it. Although man is by divine nature (Fitrah) aware of the ‘’Unseen’’ and believes in it, he cannot have a detailed knowledge of the Unseen, the creatures and the impalpable worlds about the ‘’Unseen’’ except through divine revelation. As for the Visible, it is obvious and known to the perceiver. Similarly, visibility is the full knowledge of something through the senses, imagination, intellect or existential knowledge.


Key words: analysis, the Unseen, the Visibility, the relative Unseen,  the absolute Unseen, Allameh Tabatabaei.

The Necessity of Revelation in the Thought of Muslim Theologians

Yadollah Dadjo


Revelation is a fast, coded and mysterious way of imparting realities by God to some of His chosen servants. Revelation comes in some ways other than the common methods of acquiring knowledge; like; sensation intellectual reasoning, experiment and mystical intuition. According to Muslim theologians’ view, revelation is a phenomenon, on which the perfection of man depends and which has a paramount importance for ensuring the continuity of human life and preventing corruption, injustice, anarchy and disturbance in the existing order of man. Hence, as it is stressed in the holy Quran and the narrations of the infallible Imams, revelation is a real necessity. Using a descriptive- analytical method, this paper seeks to prove the viewpoint of Muslim thinkers, especially Muslim theologians about the necessity of revelation. Therefore, there is no room for denying it and intellectual reasoning dispels any doubt about the necessity of revelation, rather reason performs confirms the belief in revelation and prophethood.


Key words: the holy Qur’an, the necessity of revelation, Muslim theologians, Hadith.  

A Critique of the Supposition of the Prophet’s Inadvertence

Ja’far Anvari


Various views are shown by theologians and commentators about ‘’Prophet’s inadvertence’’ and ‘’Prophet’s infallibility’’. Some of them focus on the ‘’conditionality’’, others focus on the “overall possibility of the Prophet’s inadvertence”; still others focus on the general view of ‘’Prophet’s infallibility’’. Nevertheless, Sheikh Saduq’s view that ‘’ inadvertence’’ which is interpreted as ‘’God’s having the Prophet forget’’, and the view of Sheikh Mufid, who strongly criticizes this view are the most famous views. Regarding the origin the idea of ‘’the Prophet’s inadvertence’’, it is a political question and one can refer to the verses and traditions to demonstrate it. Sheikh Saduq tends to explore ‘’the Prophet’s inadvertence’’ by resting on traditions. But Sheikh Mufid criticizes the mentioned evidences and he challenges this view. On the other hand, Mohaqiq Shoshtari rejects these challenges. This paper criticizes the evidences about ‘’Prophet’s inadvertence’’ and reviews the evidences about ‘’the Prophet’s infallibility’’ according to the Qur’an, Hadith and theology (Kalam).


Key words: the Prophet’s infallibility, the Prophet’s inadvertence, Sheikh Saduq, Sheikh Mufid,  Mohaqiq Shoshtari.  

The Verse of Inzar (Warning), A Prelude to the Shiite Imamate

Muhammad Javad Talebi Chari



The issue of imamate and the related religious doubts are not limited to any specific time, place or sect. Because of the relevance and the role of imamate in Muslim’s beliefs, some new doubts and issues are raised which must necessarily be dealt with by the researchers at all times. This paper aims at clarifying the concept of imamate from the Shiite viewpoint according to the provisions and reasons for the revelation of the verse of warning. It also seeks to investigate the compatibility of Shiite point of view and the Quran with regard to this issue. Responses to the doubts about the issue of imamate have mainly been related to the semantics of the word guardian (Vali). Clarification of this word based on the Shia and Sunni historical and commentary books are among the other important goals of this research. The innovations and results of this study include a review of the perspectives of those who oppose the Shiite interpretation of Imamate based on the events and happenings related to the verse of warning which is agreed upon by both Shia and Sunni religions. Interpretation of the word "guardian (vali)" and "protector (Mola)" as ‘friend’ is an unlikely possibility accepting which will prove problematic. It seems that the Shiite imamate began with the first public invitation and the event "Da’vat al-ashirah". Moreover, the event of Ghadir has been a final ultimatum to the Muslims and no other analysis of the meaning except the Shiite interpretation of the hadith of Ghadir will have any scientific basis.


Key words: the Shiite imamate, verse of warning, prelude to Imamate, Da’vat al-ashirah.

A Comparative Analysis of Intercession from the Perspective of Fakhr razi and Abdul-Jabbar

 Zakieh Fallah Yakhdani


Intercession is one of the beliefs of all religions, especially Islam, which is implied in the verses of the Holy Quran .Besides, there are frequently narrated hadiths by the infallible imams about it. Muslim theologians agree that intercession is among the accepted Islamic beliefs, although they disagree on its interpretation. Some groups like Mutazilis, due to their prejudgments about the issue of threat of punishment, had to regard intercession as specific for obedient and righteous people. As a result, because of the intercession of the Prophet, the righteous people are risen to a higher rank, not the sinners. The Ash'arites, however, believe that intercession is used for the perpetrators of major sins, who have somehow failed to repent before death. Using a descriptive - analytical approach, this paper attempts to investigate the views of two important Muslim scholars, Fakhr razi and Ghazi Abdul Jabbar, one representative of Ash'ari school and the other representative of Mu'tazili school. The results suggest that the intercession of the saints of God depends on the will of God and fulfillment of certain conditions. In addition to improving one’s position, it can decrease chastisement.


Key words: intercession, Ash'arites, Mu'tazilis, Qazi Abdul-Jabbar, Fakhr razi, committing cardinal sins.

A Comparative – Approximative Study of Mahdism Doctrine in "Sahih Moslem"

Seyyed Razi Qaderi


One of the important doctrinal components of Muslims is the subject of Imam Mahdi (AS), which has historically been of interest to the researchers and scholars of hadith. Without doubt, attention to such a component, which has a profound effect on the structure of the Muslim faith, is of great significance. Discussion of this subject in Shih Moslem, one of the most reliable Sunni sources, indicates that the book has considered this issue in many ways. Contrary to the impression of some who have tried to show that "Sahih Moslem" and "Sahih Bukhari" are away from Mahdavi topics, Sahih Moslem deals with hadith Thaqalayn ,  twelve caliphs, the signs of the reappearance of Imam Mahdi (AS) and a number of other important issues such as the revelation of Jesus, the resurrection Sefyani and eclipses in Bayda’. Using a descriptive-analytical approach and through a comparative- approximative perspective, this paper has taken these points into account. It has tried not to involve any manipulation beyond the valid criteria in the reviews and comparisons of these traditions, so that this analysis is judged and approved by the others.


Key words: Mahdi, twelve, Caliph, seditions, Last Days.

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