قيمت مقاله الكترونيكي: 

Modesty and Conduct; What Makes of True Shi'a
Ayatollah Allameh Mohammad Taqi Misbah

After praising true Shiites and real believers for their khazm-e Ghaiz and controlling their anger Amir al-Mu'minan Ali (pbuh), in his great sermon, points to some of their other features and signs such as: having good temper, being nice to neighbors, being easy to get along with, having no conceit or arrogance, being clearly patient, and constantly remembering Allah and mentioning the name of Him. Anger is rooted in arrogance and conceitedness. Basically, many moral vices have their roots in conceit and arrogance. Moreover, in some narratives, arrogance, greed and envy are introduced as the roots of unfaith and human’s destruction. As Imam Hassan says: "The destruction of people lies in three things: arrogance, greed and envy. Arrogance is the cause of the destruction of religion, and Satan was cursed because of it. Greed is the enemy of the soul, and Adam was removed from Paradise as the result of greed. Envy is the leader of badness, and Cain killed Abel because of envying him ". This paper discusses in detail the issue of modesty and good conduct as two features of real Shi'a.

Keywords: modesty, good conduct, arrogance, conceit, humility.

Resistant and Attacking Economic Strategies in the Prophetic Conduct

Seyyed Mohammad Hussein Mirsane / M.A. in Hadith Sciences Qom Seminary    mirsane62@gmail.com
Received: 2018/07/08 - Accepted: 2019/01/09
Economic development is among the most important goals of forming a nation. Finding solutions for such a goal is always the most important pillar of an economic system, especially during the economic crises. Accordingly, the resistance economy must be taken by the government in such circumstances. Using an analytical-descriptive method, this paper seeks to study the prophetic conduct to know the methods of making a favorable resilience and attacking economy to overcome the economic dominance of the enemies. This paper shows that, how the Prophet Mohammad (P.B.U.H.) eliminated the enemies' economic obstacles in Shi'b Abi Talib with resistance economic and then brought economic welfare for people. Eventually, these factors led the Prophet to turn to the attacking economy to fail the enemies of Islam economically.

Keywords: economics in Islam, economic welfare, economic sanctions, resistance economics.

Interaction of Ethics and Economics; Studying the Role of Four Axiological Foundations in the Economic Science

Mohammad Javad Qasemi Asl Estahbanati / Ph.D. Student of the Philosophy of Islamic Economics IKI    
Received: 2018/08/15 - Accepted: 2018/12/18    ghasemi2561@anjomedu.ir
Some economic schools emphasize on the separation of economic from ethics. Explaining the true Islamic perspective depends on the interaction between the two ethics and economics. Using an analytical-descriptive method and explaining the relationship between ethical and economic theories, this paper seeks to the reconcile the four ethical foundation of the origin of the axiological rules' validity, the relationship of reality and axiology, the stages of the axiological rules and audience recognition in the axiological commands in two areas of science of economic; i.e. the types of economic, normative, affirmative and policy making theories, and the types of economic analysis unit with an emphasis on the individual and economic institutions. Research findings indicate that, normative economics, a subset of normative ethics and affirmative economy is in constant interaction with descriptive morality. Any difference in ethical foundations causes a distinction between relativism or the generality of the normative and policy making theories, recognition of the acme of the economic behaviors, determining the epistemic validity and reference detection of the normative and policy making economic commands, the attitude towards the existential and methodological position of institutions in economic, recognition of the economic values and ranking between the economic values with other values, creating the capacity for comparing economic ideas based  on the ethical and behavioral values and the definition of the economic human and the human economic.

Keywords: axiological commands, economic science, reality and value, the stages of the axiological rules, the origin of the legitimacy of the axiological rules, audience recognition.

A Jurisprudential Analysis of the Rules and Operation of Leasing Companies

Seyyed Qaim Heidari manesh /PhD Student of Economics, Islamic Azad University, North Tehran Branch     seyyedghaem@yahoo.com
Mahmoud Esavi / Assistant Professor Department of Economics Allame Tabataba'i Uni.    eisavim@yahoo.com
Received: 2018/07/25 - Accepted: 2018/12/30
Using a descriptive-analytical method, this paper studies the operation of Iran's leasing companies due to their expansion in Iran. Findings show that, leasing companies' transactions are based on the hire-purchase and murabaha sale and are legally valid, although there are some regulative errors in the implementation of these two contracts. Also, some conditions for leasing companies, such as a guarantee clause, a delay penalty clause, delaying and deferring clause in paying off installments are valid legally. However, some conditions and clauses of the leasing contracts should be reviewed. For example, an outside essential contract, which is a part of the many contracts, including leasing contracts, does not happen outside, while no clauses in the contract refer to its realization. Also, sometimes the interest rates of these companies are not clear. This issue causes a deception in the transaction, which would invalidate it. Since these companies use mubara sale, some of the terms of the mubara are not met. For example, the company buys a car at a great price, but sells it at market price.

Keywords: leasing company, hire-purchase, murabaha sale, installment sale.

An In-depth Analysis of the nature of the Collaborative Contracts

Mohammad Jamal Shakeri Shamsi / M.A. in Economics IKI    mohammad67shakeri@gmail.com
Mohammad Javad Tavakoli / Assistant Professor in Economics IKI    tavakoli@qabas.net
Received: 2018/09/10 - Accepted: 2019/01/14
One of the most important problems in the banking system of Iran is the formalization of the collaborative contracts, which makes doubts about the realization of the provisions of these contracts. This is partly due to ambiguities of the nature of this contract in the Islamic jurisprudence. Explaining the nature of the collaborative contracts and their realization in the banking system of IRI is the main topic of this paper. According to the research hypothesis, risk-taking of the parties to the contract is the main pillar of the nature of the partnership. The risk of the collaborative contracts' agent relates to income, and in addition, the risk of the capital owner in such contracts, includes the capital. Findings show that, the "discovery-finalist" method is the true method of explaining the nature of the collaborative contracts, which is a combination of four methods of Shahid Sadr's discovery method including, sufficing on to the terms of the contract, conventional analysis and analysis based on the objectives of Shari'ah. Transferring the risk of capital to another person eliminates the nature of the partnership contract; therefore, placing it among the conditions of the collaborative contracts is in contrast to the requirements of the contract and will void the contract. Also, eliminating the risk of the agent in collaborative contracts, and determining the definitive gain for him will void the contract and converts it into a barter trade contract. The decisiveness of the profit of the capital owner in the partnership contracts also changes the nature of the contract itself and will void it.

Keywords: the nature of collaborative contracts, collaborative contracts, risk-taking capital, variable profits, the jurisprudence of transactions.

Identifying and Measuring Entitlement Indicator in Islamic Banking

Hamze Ma'alla / Ph.D. in Economics IKI    moalla57@yahoo.com
Received: 2018/06/19 - Accepted: 2018/11/28
Economic justice is one of the main goals of Islamic banking. Economic justice in Islamic banking means, observing the economic rights of individuals in the areas of behavior and economic relations. The economic justice in Islamic banking is based on four criteria of efficiency, equality, desirability and balance. Using a descriptive-analytical method, this paper studies and focuses on indicators of entitlement in Islamic banking. The realization of the entitlement in the Islamic banking system can be measured by indicators such as the complete fulfillment of the obligations contained in the contract, paying the right of government in receipt of legal deposits, timely payment of debts, demands.

Keywords: criterion, indicator, economic justice, entitlement, Islamic banking.

The Effect of Interest-free Loan Bills on the Economic Growth through Financial Development

Behnam Arab Bafrani / Economic Sciences Arak Azad Uni.     bafrani.sangar@gmail.com
Ali Asghar Hadavinia / Associate Professor Islamic Research Institute for Culture and Thought    alihadavinia@gmail.com
Received: 2018/07/02 - Accepted: 2018/12/20
Besides forbidding usury, the economic school of Islam has considered (qard al-hasana) (interest-free loan) as the best alternative to usury. Emphasizing on the Islamic methods of financing, qard al-hasana, as an economic behavior, has derived from the Islamic values. Bonding based on this institution, in the concept of financial development and through the optimal allocation of capital, financing large projects and equipping the saving, diversifying and expanding financial instruments with an emphasis on risk management and providing the reward of innovation will lead to economic growth. Using a descriptive-analytical method, this paper seeks to answer whether or not interest-free bonds effects on economic growth. Explaining the interest-free loan bills itself and its advantages, this research studies the impacts of making bills, as a symbol of financial development, on economic growth. Findings show that, interest-free loan bills, given its benefits, will be effective on economic growth.

Keywords: interest-free loan, interest-free loan bills, economic growth, financial development.

Certainty of Production and its Consequences

Iman Rafiee Pishuri / Ph.D. in Economic Sciences IKI    i.rafiee.p@gmail.com
MohammadJamal Khalilian Eshkezari / Associate Professor Department of Economics IKI    m_khalil411@yahoo.com
Received: 2018/05/08 - Accepted: 2018/11/19
Numerous factors and variables involved in the economic development of a country. Some of these factors relate to the economic structure of the country and others can be related to the cultural structure of the people. Certainty, accuracy and strength of a work are rooted in the culture of the society, which can be institutionalized by training. Using an analytical method, this paper shows that, improving this variable factor has many effects on the individual and society's economic conditions. The consequences for the self-employed jobs include, preserving the pride, increasing revenue and motivate, and at the level of institutional business include, gaining the considered rewards, promoting the status and executive post, modeling, and at the joint level include, accountability and tranquility. Stiffening also has some impacts on institutional business such as, increasing the credibility on an institute, reducing costs and increasing profits, creating a humanistic approach at work and increasing the quality of the products. The social effects of this issue include economic dignity and independence, economic recovery and foreign trade balance and strengthening domestic labor force.

Keywords: stiffening, confirmation, negligence, production, outcome.

A Critique and Study of the Idea of Interacting with the United States as a Strategy for Solving Iran's Macroeconomic Problems

Sayyid MohammadKāzim Rajāi / Associate Professor of Economics Department IKI    smk_rajaee@yahoo.co.uk
Received: 2018/09/08 - Accepted: 2019/01/03
In the idea of interacting with the United States, globalization is considered as a spontaneous phenomenon which is accelerated by the great powers. Progress and welfare are achieved through being part of the global village and globalization. Each country benefits from globalization if it can prove its convergence with the global system. Globalization demands changes in economic, political and cultural structures. In the process of the integration of the global economy, capital is likely to go towards those areas of the world that meet the standards of global order. Major criteria for the global order are as follows: abandoning tension with Israel, reducing the power of the traditional part of the sovereignty, separating religion from politics, reducing military costs, and resigning from the leadership of the South. Using a descriptive-analytical method, the present article seeks to explicate the view of interaction with the United States and criticize it.

Keywords: interacting with the United States, globalization, political economy, global order, global order criteria.

Stability and Economic Security; a Beam of Resistance Economy

MohammadJamal Khalilian Eshkezari / Associate Professor Department of Economics IKI    m_khalil411@yahoo.com
Mohammad Hussein Dousti / M.A. in Economics IKI
Received: 2018/10/08 - Accepted: 2019/01/12
Economic stability and security, with a resilient economy, requires identifying the harmful points and providing a solution. Using an analytical method, this paper seeks to study the harmful factors to the stability and security of the country's economy and its solutions from a resistance economic perspective. This research seeks to prove that Islam has a specific approach to economic stability and security, which is in some cases differ from the conventional economy approach. Findings show that, consumerist lifestyle, unprofitable production and also disregarding the rights of the poor damages the stability and security of the economy. In contrast, Islamic lifestyle, modifying the economic rules and structures brings economic security and stability.

Keywords: resistance economy, economic stability, economic security, economic vulnerability