In Search for Nearness to God

Ayatollah Allamah Mohammad Taqi Misbah


Believers are always after lofty knowledge and attainment of worldly favors and the favors of the other world and seek nearness to God through their whispered conversations with God. Therefore, they seek access to the Most High God and to the Fourteen Infallibles (peace be upon them). The believers who have reached high levels of the knowledge of God consider drawing nigh to God as their innate object. It is possible for one to reach these levels by following the course of free will and certain ways. The methods which have to do with personal tastes lead to nowhere. The present paper elaborates on the whispered conversations of God-seeking believers who seek nearness to God.

Key words: nearness, nearness to God, supplication, whispered conversation, devotees, union with Deity.



The Holy Prophet’s Principles of Urban Management and Development in Medina

Hassan Sattari Sarebanqoli


The holy Prophet (May the blessing and peace of Allah be upon him and his progeny) shows a good example of Islamic civilization for all ages and periods. The present paper tries to make explicit the fundamental constituents of the holy Prophet's attitude about urban development and management of Medinat al-Nabi. Using a descriptive-analytical method, the author relys on library surveys and on a review of the holy Prophet's conduct, practice, and speech to support his argument. The research findings show the advanced principles which the holy Prophet in the urban development, and urban management of Medinat al-Nabi, in which both material and spiritual aspects were taken into consideration. The principles of urban management derived from the doctrines of urban development and management in Medinat al-Nabi can be applied today to contemporary Islamic cities with considerable modifications.

Key words: Medina al-Nabi, the holy Prophet (May the blessing and peace of Allah be upon him and his progeny), urban management, urban development, Islamic urban development.



The Order of Rights and Duties in Social Relations in the View of Islam on the Basis of Imam Sajjad's Risalat al-Hoquq (Treatise on Rights)

Ismail Sabir Kayuj


Man is a social being and social life and social relations make individuals' interests compete with their wills. To solve this problem, we need a comprehensive system which determines individuals' rights and duties concerning their conduct and relations with other. Islam offers a particular view on social rights and duties. Imam Sajjad's Risalat al- Hoquq (treatise on rights) addressed to a number of Shi'ahs represents one of the most eloquent and comprehensive models of principles on social rights and duties. Taking into account Imam Sajjad’s words in this regard, the present paper tries to offer a system of individuals' rights and duties concerning social relations which can contribute to understanding the view of Islam in this respect.

Key words: right, duty, rights, moral right, Risalat al-Hoquq (treatise on rights), Imam Sajjad's treatise on rights.



The Principle of Social Justice in Islamic Management and Its Indexes

Rafi' al-Din Ismaili


In Islam, "justice" is considered one of the basic concepts and its practical administration in the society as one of the most important social and political aims in Islam. Most political schools, theories, and systems have tried theoretically and practically to attribute social justice. All divine prophets have been sent to realize this important aim. As the final religion, the true religion of Islam considers administration of social justice as one of its main aims. Therefore, there are many Qur’anic verses about justice and its synonyms and antonyms, so that, in one of his speeches, Imam Ali considers the holy Quran as a testimony to of justice. The present research tries to study social justice which is of great importance in Islamic management and point out its various aspects and indexes by referring to religious sources.

Key words: justice, social justice, communications, manager.



Family and the Indicators of Regulating Sexual Relations

Mohammad 'Aarif Mohebbi


The structural and cultural developments in modern societies have increased the scale of individuals' sexual satisfaction and brought problems to the function of the family in regulating sexual behavior. The main question that arises here is: how can men and women respond to their sexual needs within the family framework under these conditions? What are the indicators of the function of regulating the sexual behavior in an ideal Muslims family?

Regulating sexual behavior cannot be attained through a complex mental and emotional process. According to Islam, the process of sexual relation between wife and husband includes three things which have to do with sexual care, sexual drives, and intercourse. The indicators of regulating sexual behavior can be defined according to these three things. As indicators of individuals' sexual satisfaction within the family framework emotional purity, sexual commitment, controlling one’s look, keeping dignity, observing veil by woman, elegance, sexual difference, optimism, and love are among the constituents inferred from religious sources.

Key words: Islam, family, commitment, loyalty, sexual instinct, titillation, intercourse, sexual satisfaction.



The Indicators of Just Labor Distribution System in Islam

Mohammad Ali Nazari


The present paper tries to point out the indicators of just labor distribution according to the Islamic epistemological context. According to Islam, an ideal society has a particular structure and has fundamental differences from that of the secular social system. Islam considers that one of the main features of ideal social system is the necessity of conformity between social structures and the principles of social justice. According to Islam, social justice is not only important as a criterion for judgment when distinguishing between an ideal social system and an undesirable one, but it also constitutes a sustainable order that can be established in the society which is based on standards of justice. Therefore, this paper tries to reflect on and infer the indicators of just labor distribution from Islamic texts and sources.

Key words: Islam, labor distribution, natural differences, indicator, meritocracy, equal opportunity.



Social Justice in Nahj al-Balaghah (Contexts, Barriers, and Achievements)

Ali Asghar Ahmadi


Social justice which means "having access to the existing facilities in a society by all the members of society depending on the capacities" has for long been the hoped-for goal of all leaders, thinkers, and free people the world over. In order to achieve this desirable goal, we have to recognize the preliminaries to and prerequisites of social justice. Taking a probing look at Nahj al-Balaghah, the present paper seeks to discuss how it is possible for all people to have access to public facilities by identifying the "contexts, "barriers", and "achievements" of social justice.

The most important aim of this paper is to bring out the best ideas and strategic thoughts about the way of administering social justice by relying on most authentic Shiite religious source, i.e. Nahj al- Balaghah.

This research which is based on library surveys focuses on Nahj al-Balaghah and the commentaries and books related to it. A descriptive- analytical method is used in this research.

The high capacity of Nahj al-Balaghah to explain most crucial issues and demonstrate a part of Imam Ali's justice-oriented administrative attitudes during his government are among the main findings of this research.

Key words: justice, social justice, Imam Ali (peace be upon him), Nahj-al-Balaghah.



Solutions for "the Cultural Barriers to Broadening Knowledge" in Universities

Seyfullah Fazlullahi, Mansooreh Maleki Tavana


The present research uses a descriptive-survey method and its population statistics includes all faculty members of Qom Islamic Azad University. A group consisting of 60 members were chosen randomly to take part in the survey. A researcher-made questionnaire including 10 graded items and 2 open items was used for gathering the data. The data analysis shows that the cultural barriers are the most effective barriers to broadening and developing knowledge in universities. The most appropriate strategies towards broadening knowledge are proposing a comprehensive plan for cultural assimilation and developing appropriate methods for broadening knowledge. The methods of overcoming the cultural barriers to broadening knowledge in universities are respectively: developing theorization chairs, criticism and scientific dialogue, practical support for scientific ijtihad, changing administrative approaches towards enacting policies and priority of man over strategies, maintaining and promoting researchers and university scholars' scientific independence and freedom and professional stability, changing the patterns of managing universities form political bureaucracy to a participatory and incorporative one, internalizing the need for knowledge and changing broadening knowledge and thought into a general value in universities.

Key words: cultural barriers, broadening knowledge, solutions, universities, faculty members.



The Role of the Growth of the Youth in the Constitutional Revolution

Reza Ramezan Nargesi


Many factors are responsible for the Constitutional Revolution, one of which is the presence of the youth. The present paper considers that the youth who took part in the Constitutional Revolution are divided into four groups: 1. young seminary students, 2. knightly youth, 3. voluntary young people working under the command of religious scholars, and 4. young west-oriented intellectuals. The first three groups sought to establish a native constitutional government but the fourth were after forming a secular and west oriented constitutional government.

Key words: the youth, population, Constitutional Revolution, religious scholars, Dar al –Funoon , intellectuals.



An Inquiry into Divorce

Yusuf Bahadori & Qasem Ebrahimipour


Divorce or ending the connection between wife and husband becomes valid by pronouncing especial words and it is different from such concepts as marriage break-up, declaration of husband's loss and desertion. In Islam giving the right of divorce to man is founded on the traditions which confirm the idea of entrusting to man financial responsibilities, and refer to natural and sexual differences between man and woman. There are two kinds of divorce: the first is not adherence to one’s promise including the promise to provide conventional facilities for life, satisfying sexual need, paying alimony and lack of understanding between spouses, and such thing like absence of mutual affections, hatred, indency, emotional in attention to religion, doing dishonest things, and addiction. Although Islam is extremely against divorce, it approves it and sometimes considers necessary when spouses do not adhere to their promise and do not do their duties and when the philosophy of marriage and some social institutions are in danger.

Key words: divorce, indicator, family, Islam, pathology.