The Nature and Scope of Knowledge of God (1)

Ayatollah 'Allamah Mohammad Taqi Misbah


The present paper seeks to elucidate Imam Sajjad's "Whispered Prayers of the Knowers". Acquired knowledge is a type of knowledge that is acquired through sensory and intellectual concepts by means of mental concept and form, whereas intuitive knowledge is attained by a perceiver without the role of concept. Like acquired knowledge, intuitive knowledge is divided into conscious, semi-conscious and unconscious, and has different types. Intuitive knowledge can never be incorrect. Man has an intuitive knowledge of God and a covenant with and servitude toward Him from the beginning of creation. Some instances of this kind of man's natural knowledge of the Most High God in are found Quranic verses and religious teachings. The present paper investigates the ways of acquiring conscious knowledge of the Most High God.

Key words: knowledge, intuitive knowledge, acquired knowledge, natural knowledge, stages of knowledge.


A Study of the Concept of Sabr (Patience) in Islam and Finding Its Equivalence in Psychology

Hussein Amiri, Rahim Mirdarikvandi, Mohammad Reza Ahmadi Mohammadabadi


The present paper seeks to elaborate on the concept of Sabr (patience) in Islam and find its equivalence in psychology. It also tries to criticize or modify the previous ways of studying the concept and finding the equivalent of patience. A descriptive-analytical method is used in this paper which reviews the important findings in three aspects: 1- a literal, idiomatic and narrative research, shows that "Sabr" means keeping calm in face of the difficulties and constantly controlling oneself; 2- the relationship of the concept of "Sabr" with fear of God, forbearance and abstinence, and this help to form a clearer idea of the of the concept of "Sabr"; 3- An investigation of the relationship between the concept of "Sabr" and some psychological concepts shows that the closest equivalence of "Sabr" is "patience".

Key words: a study of the concept, patience, fears of God, self-control, finding the psychological equivalence of patience.


The Method of Spiritual coping with Stress in the View of Islam

Najibullah Noori


Psychology proposes some ways for coping with stress. These ways are influential in helping individuals to cope with the relatively low stress, but spiritual ways of coping with stress are more influential in very difficult situations. Spiritual methods of confrontations refer to religious beliefs and activities which help individuals manage emotional stress. Since the ways of coping with stress, which were introduced with an Islamic approach, did not enjoy the necessary comprehensiveness. So, it is necessary to study this issue in the light of the doctrines of Islam. The present paper seeks to make explicit the ways of coping with tension and stress from the view of Islam. A content analysis of religious texts is used in this paper. The research findings indicate following ways as spiritual means of confrontation from the view of Islam: transcendence- orientation, reinterpretation of happiness, situation analysis, regarding difficulties as affliction, considering the mortality of the self, realization of the final end, considering visiting our dear ones in the hereafter, paying attention to idea of pleading for justice in hereafter, neglecting mistakes, comparing the existing difficulty with greater ones, generalization, hopefulness, prayer, proper lifestyle and increasing tolerance.

Key words: confrontation, spiritual confrontation, way, stress, the view of Islam.


A Comparative Analysis of Zahra's Educational Methods for Bringing up Children and the Educational Methods of Modern Age

Majid Zare'i, Raheleh Kardavani


An educational method constitutes techniques and methods which help to achieve the aims of education. The educational methods of bringing up children are those techniques which are used to raise children and consolidate their personality. Every educational approach has its own particular aims, stages and techniques dues to their different principles and foundations. Accordingly, the educational methods of modern age, which are mostly proposed by western theorists during the 19th and 20th centuries in the field of educational and developmental psychology, are fundamentally different from Zahra's educational methods, which are based on the principles and foundations of Islam and whose aims Islam has approved, in terms of bringing up children, although they have some similarities. The present paper, which uses a library-based and an analytical-descriptive method, seeks to comparatively analyze and extract the fundamental differences between Zahra's educational methods and those of modern age concerning bringing up children. These two types of educational methods are fundamentally different with regard to their aims, principles and educational methods, which is discussed in this paper in detail.

Key words: educational method, bringing up children, her majesty Zahra (peace be upon her), psychology.

Zeynab (Peace be upon Her): the Model of Mental Health

Mohammad Zare'i Toopkhaneh


The present paper seeks to study Zeynab's attitude towards the tragedy of Karbala in the framework of Beck's cognitive theory and extract the speech given by this great lady of Islam during the tragedy of Karbala by using a descriptive-analytical approach. Then it tries to set Zeynab (peace be upon her) as a good example by elaborating on her attitude according to the three main components of Beck's cognitive theory in the context of Islamic worldview. The research findings indicate that, according to the three main components of Beck's cognitive theory, her Majesty Zeynab (peace be upon her) represents a successful educational model for mental health and control of impulse, and can be introduced as an excellent model for directing the post traumatic stress disorders and heartbrokenness.

Key words: Zeynab (peace be upon her), model, mental health, Beck's cognitive theory.


A Review of the Psychological Concept of Arrogance in Islamic Sources and Its Comparison with Narcissism

Seyyed Abulfazl Ghoddoosi, Rahim Mirdarikvandi


The present paper elaborates on the relationship between arrogance and narcissism through a psychological approach by using an analytical-descriptive method and with the aim of examining the relationship between the moral and psychological concepts. First, it studies the concept of "arrogance" from the view of the Quran, traditions and scholars of ethics, and expounds the concept of "narcissism" form the view of psychologists. Then it elaborates on the signs, kinds, causes, symptoms, spectrum and therapy of each of the two and compares them. The research findings indicate that arrogance and narcissism overlap each other considerably and the relationship between them is most harmonious in concerning signs and is the two are different concerning the causes and therapy. The review of arrogance is deeper and more general in terms of its causes and therapy, but it has not become operational appropriate to the need of modern time, so psychology and ethics can exert considerable influence on the method of therapy.

Key words: arrogance, narcissism, therapy of arrogance, therapy of narcissism.


Moral Principles in the Islamic Counseling in Relation to Clients

Ahmad Imamirad


The present paper seeks to investigate the moral principles which should be observed by a Muslim counselor while counseling. It is a library-based research which, reviewing traditions and Quranic verses relating this subject, points out to the following moral issues about the relationship between counselor and his/her clients: treating clients with respect, using good words and behavior towards them, paying full and careful attention to and fully understanding them, giving them ample opportunity to speak freely, trustworthiness, refraining from counseling with an enemy, not betraying the clients, giving advice and being benevolent, showing cordiality and kindness, creating and preserving a happy atmosphere during counseling, showing great courage, providing proper counseling, truth-orientation, equality, paying attention to unique characteristics, keeping the promise, showing tolerance towards clients and disregarding their mistakes, being humble and showing modesty, bashfulness, chastity, abstaining from lasciviousness, paying attention to the clients' interests, avoiding obstinacy and cheap talk, directing the clients to specialists in case of counselor's inability, not taking advantage of clients' and his/her occupational position, providing the clients with necessary information, establishing relations with the clients' family, not letting his/her personal uneasiness extend to the clients, and selecting qualified colleagues and staff for the counseling center.

Key words: counselor, counseling, Islamic counseling, moral principles.

Behavioral Interaction between Spouses in the View of Islam and Psychology

Jawad Torkashvand, Farzaneh Ja'farzadeh


One of the factors behind the well-being, stability and consolidation of family is correct and constructive interaction between spouses. Part of this interaction is the behavioral interaction between spouses, which is defined as duties and roles. Using a descriptive-analytical method, the present paper seeks to find out and draw out a coherent set of spouses' behaviors from authentic Islamic sources and elaborate on some of them scientifically and psychologically. Finally, it reaches the conclusions that:

A) The different duties and roles of spouses in behavioral interaction are not value-based but are ascribed to different characteristics of each sex.

B) Spouses' behavioral interaction can be defined by four kinds of behavior with different instances: man's particular behaviors, woman's particular behaviors, their common different behaviors and their common similar behaviors.

Key words: interaction between spouses, spouses' behavioral interaction, duty, role.

The Role of Good Temperedness and Good Language in Family and Social Relations

Ali Husseinzadeh


The factors which contribute to rising tension and bringing quiescence to social life are of special importance in social relations. The present paper reviews how good temperedness and good language influence social relations and studies the importance, signs, functions and skills of these two moral factors and their role in providing the members of society with a sense of happiness, hope and endeavor and make them live a peaceful life. A descriptive-analytical method is used in this paper whose findings which concludes that good temperedness results in the end of hatred and enmity, and brings friendliness and affection, nearness to God and happy end when one uses the eye and smile skillfully and through the use of a good language a pleasant life, security, dignity and happy end will be accessible when such skills like realization of the final end, reviewing the behavior, the game of relationship, using fun, extinction and positive reinforcement are taken into consideration.

Key words: good temperedness, good language, communicative skills, happy end, adaptation.