ABSTRACTS

 

The Whispered Prayer of the Knowers: the Nature and Scope of the Knowledge of God (2)

Ayatollah 'Allamah Mohammad Taqi Misbah

Abstract

Shiite and Sunny scholars have differing views about whether or not man praise and thanks the Most High God as He ought to be praised. The friends of God and the household of holy Prophet (peace be upon him and his progeny) are divided into three groups: the first group loves God and Prophet's household in public but in secret it does not. The second group loves them in secret but in public it does not. The third group loves them both in public and in secret. Among the features of those who love God and the holy prophet and his household in public and in secret are having true knowledge and trying to increase it, having knowledge of God and divine attributes, believing in them, knowing the limits and realities of faith, and disapproving apparent and meaningless faith. Real knowledge of God is acquired by intuition and apprehension by presence. In this way, man can build up conscious and real relationship with God. The ultimate aim of such pure knowledge is obedience to God and the holy Prophet and submission to God's will.

Keywords: knowledge, intuitive knowledge, divine lordly condition, pure monotheistic knowledge.

The Theory of Perfect Man in Islamic Mysticism

Mohammad Fanaei Eshkevari

Abstract

Epistemologically, Islamic mysticism is a kind of intuitive ontology obtained through a mystical journey. Given this perspective, the real being is the Absolute Being or the Almighty God Who is unique, infinite and absolutely perfect. Among the creatures in the universe, man enjoys a special status. He is composed of a physical body and divine soul. Whatever exists in the world of existence can be found man. Therefore, man is said to be a microcosm and a most comprehensive being. Man is the object of creation and everything in this world is at his disposal. Man has intellect and free will on the one hand, and animal desires and impulses on the other hand. Man can reach the highest levels of perfection if he follows ration and obeys God or will drop and get to the lowest levels if he follows animal desires. A perfect man is the most perfect manifestation of all God's names and attributes. Wilayah (divine authority) is sometimes accompanied by prophethood and sometimes by executorship and Imamate. Nearness to God and journey in the path of perfection is contingent upon knowing the Wali (God's friend) and following the light of guidance.

Key Words: manifestation, comprehensive universe, Caliphate (vicgerency), perfect man, divine authority, prophethood, Imamate.

 

A Master and His Role in Spiritual Journey; a Pathological Look

Abulfazl Hashemi Sajzehii

Abstract

One of the important issues in Islamic mysticism is a wayfarer's need for a master to guide and help him/her during the spiritual journey. The tradition of Sufis is that a wayfarer should learn the manners of spiritual journey from a master and progresses on the path under his guidance. This issue raises the question of the relationship between the wayfarer and the master and the manners of devotee and object of devotion. It provides a proper context for the genesis of damages faced by a wayfarer on the path of mysticism and Sufism so that charlatans in cloisters deceive naïve individuals who want to purify their souls. Reviewing Quranic verses, traditions, mystical texts and Sufis' words, the present paper seeks to explain the necessity of having an eminent master in spiritual issues who has the responsibility of guiding and helping the wayfarer in his way towards acquiring the knowledge of the Truth. There are some damages in this regard, the most important of which is devotion to wrong-headed masters who take the wayfarer to go astray. It is necessary for a wayfarer to completely know the master to selected or followed to be safe from the risk of injury.

Key words: master, mysticism, Sufism, spiritual journey, pathology.

Zahabiyyah Sect and a Review and a Critique of Some of Its Beliefs

Seyyed Mohammad Hajati Shooraki, Murteza Sane'i

Abstract

"Zahabiyyah" is one of the active Sufi sects in Iran. Jonayd Baghdadi, Sari Sayghati, Ahmad Ghazali and Najmuddin Kubra are among the Sheikhs of this sect. Although various accounts are related about the founder of this sect, it seems that its founder is Seyyed 'Abdullah Borzeshabadi. The followers of this sect say that they are related to the Infallible Imams and believe that the proof of the partial lunar sainthood of this chain traces back to Imam Reza (peace be upon him) through Ma'roof Karkhi. However, there is no such a title in Islamic Shari'ah like lunar sainthood. Moreover, the relationship between Ma'roof Karkhi and Imam Reza (peace be upon him) and Karkhi's conversion to Islam by Imam Reza is according to historical evidence and other evidence is a questionable assumption. Among the important shortcomings of this sect is its chain of Sheikhs and Poles, which suffers from a conflict and inter-sect coup d'état. Using a descriptive method, the present paper is conducted with the aim of giving an idea about and criticizing this sect, tries to take into consideration the views of critics and pundits.

Key words: Sufism, Zahabiyyah sect, Pole, Ma'roof Karkhi, lunar sainthood, solar sainthood.

A Reanalysis of Marxism, Nihilism, and Satanism in Paulo Coelho's Mystical Literature

Seyyed Mohammad Moosawian

Abstract

Paulo Coelho is a famous Brazilian novelist and leader of a deviant sect. During his adolescence, he became faithless and, due to his strong inclination towards Marx and Angles, he changed all Marxist views. Meanwhile, he was interested in magic and consequently was attracted to Satanist groups. After the collapse of Marxist and Freudian materialist systems, he properly felt the vacuum resulted from the lack of religion and spirituality in the West and took to writing novels in order to meet man's natural need for mysticism and spirituality. To this end, he presented the world Marxist, nihilist and Satanist thoughts under the guise of mysticism and spirituality through a simple and explicit language. Using a descriptive-analytical method, the present paper seeks to compare Marxist, nihilist and Satanist thoughts with Coelho's thoughts and proves that he was greatly influenced by Marxism and Satanism in his literature and that he adopted a secular type of mysticism.

Key words: philosophical Marxism, Hippism, inner knowledge, Nihilism, Satanic Bible

 

The Jewish-Christian Roots of God and Satan in LaVay's Satanic Bible

Ali Ghahramani

Abstract

Satan introduced to the world by LaVay is not an evil creature but the goddess of love and a light-giving thing. According to LaVay, Lucifer is a good and powerful creature with God-like attributes, which has two aspects- positive and negative- simultaneously. Although the notion that there is a creature with transcendent attributes and at the same time in the deepest level of debasement seems to be somehow strange, it is does not seem so for those who are familiar with Jewish and Christian theology. Using an analytical-descriptive method, the present paper seeks to delve into the foundations of the doctrines of Torah and Bible in order to find a trace of such creature, which is hidden in the different layers of ancient Jewish and Christian texts.

Key words: God, Satan, Satan-orientation, Satanism, the church of Satan, the Bible of Satan, Anton LaVay.

An analytical Account of the Book "Parameters of Pure Shiite Mysticism"

Marziyeh Varmarzyar

Abstract

It is necessary to become acquainted with some of the issues on the philosophy of mysticism, practical and theoretical mysticism and revising them properly in order to specify the parameters of Shiite mysticism, because making a mistake in any of these fields can be regarded as s defect in mysticism and can lead to deviation. The nature of mysticism and the relationship of mysticism with religion and intellect are among the key issues of the philosophy of mysticism, which are dealt with in the book "Parameters of Pure Shiite Mysticism". This book also examines the relationship between religion and mysticism, practical and theoretical mysticism.

The final part of the present paper, which is the main concern of the author, is devoted to the parameters of Shiite mysticism,. Belief in monotheism, prophethood, resurrection, divine authority and the spiritual journey based on Shari'ah are among the most important features of true mysticism while spiritualism devoid from the belief in God, revelation and resurrection (reincarnation- orientation) or the types of mysticism that oppose Shari'ah and intellect and spiritual journey which disregards morality and life do not fall into the province true mysticism. Accordingly, referring to intellect, observing revelation and self-purification together with a spiritual journey which leads to intuition are regarded as the three profound features of Shiite mysticism and known as the harmony among mysticism, demonstration and the Quran.

Key words: mysticism, Shiite mysticism, intellect, religion, mystical ontology, practical mysticism.