The Conditions of God’s Blessing upon the Shi’ah and Safeguarding Them against Dangers

Ayatollah Allamah Mohammad Taqi Misbah


In this article Allamah Misbah elaborates on the characteristics of the Shi’ah in the light of the sayings of the Infallible Imam (pbuh). From the view of the Prophet’s household (pbut), the title of ((Shi’ah)) has a special position, status and sanctity. They see that the Shi’as have unique characteristics. From among the characteristics that make the Shi’as deserve God’s safety from plights and dangers of enemies are: 1. Improving their relation with God 2. Improving their relation with Imams 3. Fulfilling their responsibilities towards their religious brothers.

Among the characteristics of the Shi’ah are: they are most devout, they speak calmly and queitly, they do no react negatively to difficulties, they do not go to extremes in praising Infallible Imams, they show friendship to the followers of the Prophet’s household (peace be upon them), they do not companyship with those who go astray, they do not befriend the enemies of the Prophet’s household. Also, some narrations mentions calmness, debonairness, not being avaricious, not having bad opinion of others kindness, conscientiousness and self-respect as the most important characteristics of the Shi’as. 

Key words: the Shi’ah, true Shi’ah, untrue Shi’ah.

The Infallibility of Prophets in the View of Allamah Tabatabaei

Mohammad Hossein Faryab


The infallibility of the prophets is among the topics which has always been the special concern of Muslim and non-Muslim scientists of various areas of specialization, including mysticism, philosophy, science of Hadith and theology. Great efforts are made these days to investigate this issue. Allamah Tabatabaei investigated this issue thoroughly.  This paper seeks to investigate the question of infallibility of prophets in the eyes of Allamah Tabatabaei. The main findings of this research show that Allamah Tabatabaei thinks that infallibility originates from

the constant and categorical knowledge of the baseness of sins and abandonment of obligations. Moreover, he does not believe in the absolute infallibility of prophet. For instance, he does not support the idea of prophets’ infallibility regarding the things which are not related to receiving the revelation and imparting it to people and carrying out religious obligations. Meanwhile, he strogly stresses the infallibility of prophets with regard to receiving and imparting the revelation and also with respect to sinning.

Key words: infallibility with respect to sinning, infallibility in respect of the errancy, the prophets, Allamah Tabatabaei, the origin of infallibility.

The Advenatge in Divine Actions; a Review of Allameh Tabatabai Views

Jama Al-diin Soleymani Kiyasari


This article seeks to examine the advantage wisdom of divine actions. Are divine actions based on a series of advantages and wisdom? Can we assume that divine acts are of no avail and unwise? This paper seeks to closely examine the kind of divine acts and their similarities or differences with man's actions. The answer to this question opens up new vista for the knowledge of Divine Essence and contributes to the acquaintance with some of the actions and attributes of God. The research uses a library-based method for gathering information a descriptive - analytical approach to explore this topic, concentrating on Allameh Tabatabai’s views in Al-Mizan commentary. A study of the views of the author of Al-Mizan, shows that it is possible to provide a new definition of the wisdom of divine actions, other than that of Ash'arites and Mu'tazilas. This view represents a kind of novel and innovative combination of a number of Quranic verses to this article refers.

Key words: providence, divine action, Ash'arites, Mu'tazila.

The Essence of Religion and Unity of Heavenly Religions in the View of Allameh Tabatabai

Sayyed Ahmad Tabatabaii Sotudeh


Explaining the common essence of all religions or at least the main religions has always been the special concern of religious scholars in the last two centuries. Does religion, with all its varieties, have one nature and truth? Assuming that there is a gemstone and a shellfish in religion, does the value of religion correspond with its gemstone, or is the shellfish as valuable and important as the gemstone? In this article, Allama Tabatabai answers the mentioned questions. Unlike western empiricists and eastern traditionalists, Allameh emphasizes  on the existence of a constant truth in all divine religions which he calls Islam (surrendering), and he considers the whole religion (outward and inward) to have an equal value and attainment of the reality of religion is not possible without abiding by the outward aspects of Sharia. But, what has been emphasized in this paper is that considering the special attention given to Allamah's various remarks and points of view presented while answering all the questions raised in this regard, opens up new vistas of research in to the diversity of religions.

Key words:  essence of religion, unity of religions, outward and inward aspects of religion, Sharia and truth, Allamah Tabatabai.

Religious Rites in Islam; Conceptology, Characteristics and Functions

Hossein Arbabi


As God Almighty encourages the pious to affirm their decision and strengthen their belief, He also encourages them to behave and act according to it in order to express and reinforce their beliefs. These may be private acts and show the relation between God and man, and they may be public actions, which aronse the feelings of the pious. These actions which are referred to as “religious rites”, have a considerable part in Islam and play an important role in Muslims’ individual and social life.

 Using a theoretical-analytical approach, this research seeks to investigate Islamic rites and their characteristics and functions, and show that they are outward and clear is performing of signs which goes with the divine will, so that the believers may remember God and they may be a means of recognizing the religious identity of the faithful and a sign of their adherence to Divine commandments.  In brief, six characteristics can be derived from this definition. they are; narrating, announcement, status, partnership, ascription and distinction.

Key words: conceptology, characteristics, indexes, religious rites, religious symbols, Islam.

The Relationship of Favour and Grace with Duty according to the Imamites and Catholic

Hassan Dinpanah


The relationship of favour and grace with duty is one of the considerable debates in Imamiyah school of thought and Catholic Christianity. Although the two principles of Lutf (favour) in Imamiyah and fayd(grace) in Catholic Christianity are intended to achieve welfare and salvation, they have different effects and take different ways in relation to duty. The present paper shows through a comparative method and documental approach that, according to Imamiyah theology, fulfilling the duty and following Sharia contribute to realizing the principle of Lutf. In Catholic theology, the principle of fayd is pivotal, but Divine Law receives little attention in practice. In reality, the intended permanent principle in the rule of favour(lutf) is duty and the aim of realizing divine favour leads to duty, but the intended cornerstone of grace is the very grace of Jesus whose appearance leads to the revocation of prophets’ duty and Divine Law. The acts and moral precepts and faiths taught by Jesus and Catholic Church are intended to achieve divine grace.

Key words: favour, grace, duty, sharia, Church, sacred faiths.

A Comparison between Khaje Abdullah Ansari and St. Benedict's Views on Asceticism and Forsaking Sins

Sayyed Mohammad Reza Musavi Nasb


This paper compares the commands of St. Benedict, a Christian monk, with that of Khaje Abdullah Ansari, concerning asceticism, aloofness from materialistic world and forsaking sins. In order to broaden the knowledge of Abrahamic religions, this study aims through using an analytical- descriptive method to highlight the similarities and differences between the views of these two figures. This comparison is based on "Manazel-al Sa'reen" by Khoja and "The Rules" by Benedict. It is concluded that in many cases, Benedict's idea conform with Khaje's ideas. The reason for the similarities between Benedict and Khaje’s behavioral commands is that the source of the knowledge of each of them is heavenly religions i.e. Christianity and Islam, both of which are based on a common human Fitrah (nature). The difference between the two schools of thought is ascribed to the fact that Khaje's mystical school is more advanced than that of Benedict.

Key words: Benedict, Khaje Abdullah Ansari, Islamic mysticism, monasticism, asceticism, the book of rules, Manzel al-Sayerin.

A Prelude to the Theory of Fiqh and Fitrah(Nature)

Abbas Ali Meshkani Sabzevari – Gholam Ali Esmaeili Karizi


One of the necessary steps in the expansion of Fiqh is the expansion of its sources. Sources can be expanded qualitatively and quantitatively. Qualitative expansion is concerned with kind of view and conception of sources but quantitative expansion is concerned with the question whether the sources of Fiqh are limited to the present four sources or we can refer to other sources in the inference of religious laws As a long-lasting but neglected companion of intellect, fitrah(nature) is one of the issues that can be considered to find whether or not it can be one of the sources of Fiqh and religious injunctions.  The present paper expounds the different scientific and practical functions of fitrah(nature) , focusing on three types: anterior, medial and posterior.  In anterior function, nature represents a fertile land that prepares the round and foreground for the function and efficacy of the four sources: the Holy Qur’an, the Sunnah of the Prophet, Consensus of fiqhi opinions and Reason.  In medial function, nature, inter alia, is placed alongside the mentioned four sources and regarded as a source of understanding some religious teachings. In posterior function, nature is the criterion for the soundness of propositions and inferential religious teachings.

Key words: Fiqh, government, nature, illuminating, normative, important.

A Critique of Rubin's Research about Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)

Hassan Rezaei Haftadar and Morteza Vali Zadeh


Muslim's acquaintance with the orientalists' ideas about Islamic theology and the criticizing their views is an inevitable must. Therefore, this paper tries to expound and criticize Rubin’s research about Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). A library-based method and an analytical-critical approach are used in this study. Though the paper is concerned with Robin's views about Prophet, the views of Muslim scholars, when necessary, have been referred to in order to complete the investigation. Rubin's research indicates that he has delved in to Islamic sources. However, because he could not understand some Quranic verses properly, his research contains misconceptions about the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh).

Key words: Yuri Rubin, Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), the meaning of Muzammil and Muddathir, ascribing polytheism to the Prophet (pbuh), the scope of prophetic mission, casting doubts about the traditions on the lifestyle of the prophet the occasions of revelation.

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