The True Shia; Paragons of Pure Human Virtues and Noble Traits

Ayatollah Allameh Mohammad Taqi Misbah


The present paper aims at explaining the characteristics of Shia believers with regard to moral virtues and noble traits. Fadha'il (Virtues) mainly refers to the enduring noble traits, whereas Fawadhil refer to moral traits such as beneficence which have not yet reached the state of being enduring traits. Virtues have different qualitative and quantitative degrees. There are two criteria for determining the superiority and degree of quality and assessing the quality of actions: the first is knowledge of the person who does the action, and the second is his sincerity. The more a person’s knowledge and sincerity is, the more significant the value and quality of his action will be. On the other hand, knowledge and sincerity are inseparably linked. The more one’s knowledge is, the more sincerity one he will show in actions. Furthermore, piety renders one's deeds accepted, whereas sins render righteous deeds void.


Key words:   action, righteous deeds, sin, virtues, Fawadhil.

The Internal Senses of Soul; Nature, Function and Position

Ahmad Sa’eedi –Ali Qanbarian


According to Mullah Sadra's psychology, human soul which is known for its simplicity, is united with many faculties. Accordingly, the faculties of soul are considered part of its existential states but they differ in perfection and imperfection. Therefore, each of them has a separate grade in soul. Man’s particular disciplines are related to the outer and inner faculties of perception at the animal level of soul. Man's perceptions and external perceptions are the special functions of man’s five external senses, and consolidation, transformation, and remembrance of all man’s internal and external perceptions are the functions of the five internal senses. The important role that the internal senses play in perceptions and the effect of perceptions on man’s voluntary deeds and traits show the necessity of realizing internal senses and sharpening and adjusting them. In fact, some of man’s offences and vices are ascribe to the imbalance in internal senses. Therefore, achievement of everlasting bliss demands the acquaintance with these faculties and hindering their imbalance. Using a descriptive –analytical method, this paper expounds Muslim scholars' view about the reality, function and position of internal senses.


Key words: faculty, external senses, internal senses, soul, animal level of soul.

Seeking a Solution to the New Puzzle about Induction

Mohsen Moqeri


Hume’s classical problem of induction and Nelson Goodman's new puzzle are among the most important issues of induction which have been the special concern of contemporary philosophers. Hume targets the problem of justifying inductive inferences and concludes that inference is only a result of our psychological habits. However, Goodman, while accepting the formulation of inductions, points out that some of these inductions are valid and some are not .In his puzzle, he seeks to find a criterion which distinguishes between these inductions. The philosophers of the second half of recent century, such as Goodman, proposed various solutions for dealing with the new puzzle about induction. In some of these answers, resorting to the psychological analysis of Hume or making use of some kind of naturalized epistemology is regarded among the answers to the new puzzle about induction. The present paper evaluates some of the most important given answers and highlights their shortcomings .In the end, it shows that the key to solving this puzzle is in the hands of Goodman, who was the first proposed it.


Key words: new puzzle of induction, Nelson Goodman, Sabi’s paradox, Quine's naturalized epistemology, Nathan Astemer, transitivity, steadiness and stability.

The Reliability of Rational Knowledge in Al-Mizan Commentary

 Abbas Ghorbani


Inviting man to rationality, the Holy Quran urges man to believe in God and the Unseen and to be pious. However, even with regard to the visible universe, the reliability of reasoning is hotly disputed. Then, how can man respond positively to the invitation of the Holy Quran? What solution does Al-Mizan have? This study aims to find answers to the above questions and to retain confidence in the intellect and its findings. Using a library-based method and referring to Allameh Tabatabaei’s Al-Mizan and his other works, the present paper shows through logical analysis that Allameh emphasizes on the noetic quality of the concept of knowledge and realization of its application and responds to skeptics and sensationalists to prove the reliability of rational knowledge. This makes his audience accept the idea of the reliability of using reasoning in deliberating on the Qur'anic verses about creation and legislation.


Key words: epistemology, skepticism, sense, reason, knowledge, reliability, Al-Mizan.

The Relationship between Reason and Revelation from the Perspective of Ibn Roshd  and Sadr al-Mota'allehin

Akbar Fayde’ee - Maryam Hassanpour


The relationship between philosophy and religion, and  the question of reason and revelation and the compatibility or incompatibility of these two are among the main and profound issues in theology. This question has long been the special concern of religious scholars and differing views have been presented in this respect. A vast majority of Muslim philosophers, including Mulla Sadra and Ibn Roshd, believe in the value and validity of reason and revelation, and attempt to prove the idea of integration between theosophy and Shari’ah. They regard allegorical interpretation as the best way to resolve the apparent contradiction between reason and Shari’ah, but they disagree about the meaning and scope of interpretation and about the epistemological methods .Using a descriptive-analytical method, the present paper refers to the Qur'anic verses, narrations and ideas of Muslim thinkers to make explicit the relationship between  reason and revelation and tries to compare between Ibn Roshd and Sadr al- mota'allehin’s ideas about the ability of reason to discover religious knowledge and the instances of the compatibility of theosophy with Shari’ah.


Key words: theosophy, Shari’ah, Islamic philosophy, rational knowledge, revealed


Ibn Sina's View about Divine Grace and Its Relationship with the Evils

Mohammad Sarbakhshi


The philosophy of the creation of the world and the evils in it has been the special concern of philosophers and theologians. Resting on the key elements of the concept of divine grace i.e. science, causality, will and satisfaction, Ibn Sina tries to present a clear picture of the cause of creation and the order of goodness in the world. It seems that his statements cannot illustrate all the ambiguous aspects of this issue or provide a convincing answer to all the existing problems. Based on Ibn Sina's words and the ideas inferred from transcendental theosophy, the present paper seeks to explore the above issue and answer the related questions.


Key words: grace, love, will, divine authorship, hierarchies of existence, evil, interference.


Mahdi Meshgi


Rooted in secularism, the idea of "human-centeredness" developed with the advent of the Renaissance, reflecting its impact on art and literature, and gradually turned into a new worldview in the age of Enlightenment. The aim of studying humanism is to explain the fact that humanism has not remained as a mere term but it has found its way into different fields, such as epistemology, ontology, anthropology, axiology, science, etc. marking the beginning of a new world based on reason rather than on faith in God. The important reason for studying humanism is to explore the relationship between humanism and its effects. Many people happen to have opposed an intellectual trend, but because they do not know how that trend has entered their lives, they unconsciously accept that worldview and they are dogged by what they disliked. The first step for understanding humanism is exploring its relationship with intellectual problems and the next step is investigating its relationship with science and instruments. Using a descriptive-analytical approach, this paper tries to investigate the relationship between humanism and intellectual issues.


Key words: humanism, human-centeredness, epistemology, human-centered, human-centered ontology, human-centered anthropology, human-centered axiology, the Renaissance.

Allameh Tabatabaei’s Method of Inferring the Prescriptive Issues of the Humanities from the Axiological Teachings of Religion

Abbas Geraei


Defining the descriptive and prescriptive humanities and explaining the differences between the method of each discipline, the present paper shows that according to Allameh Tabatabai, the role which values play ​​in determining the objectives and orientating the issues about the humanities is inevitable. Therefore, the development of prescriptive human sciences leading to happiness requires a comprehensive and complete value system of a true religion. As the issues of prescriptive human sciences arise after the objectives are set and necessary descriptions are given, his approach to inferring the issues of the human sciences is explained in three steps: formulating the basic principles and giving description, expressing or- at least- considering the goals of the true religion and offering the answer to the issue.


Key words:  prescriptive human sciences, values, the values ​​of a true religion.

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