ABSTRACTS

The Modest Disposition of the True Shi´a

Ayatollah Allameh Mohammad Taqi Misba̅h

Abstract

The present paper deals with the exposition of the words of Imam Ali (PBUH) about the valuable traits of true Shia and the pious. The true Shi´as live a humble and modest life. It is not appropriate for the Shi´as to have a prideful spirit or arrogance. Divine prophets have come to wipe out our arrogance and make us pure servants to God. Therefore, modesty is encouraged in Islam and has an important position in religious teachings. One should not be proud and overjoyed at God's blessings. Humility, which is among excellent values in monotheistic viewpoint, leads us to the state of being a servant to God. Arrogance, pride or haughtiness is a trap set by Satan to prevent us from devotion to God; It was a feeling of pride and arrogance that caused Satan to be driven from the divine threshold of God Almighty.

Key words: pride, arrogance, humility, modesty.


A Review of Challenges to the Principle of the Grace and Choosing a New Proposal

Hossein Dinpanah

Abstract

The principle of "grace" is among the first rules in Imamiyyah theology and is considered as the basis for a set of its beliefs. Every act that God performs to His servants, through which they may be guided towards His obedience and avoid sins, is called "grace". The special role of explaining the principle of grace in the current period belongs to Imamiyyah School. Although Mu'tazilite School believes in the necessity of divine grace, their efforts ended in the seventh century and since then, Ash'arites have been the leaders of Sunni beliefs. Ash'arites have been serious opponents of the principle of the grace and raised objections on this rule. Using a descriptive and analytical method, the present paper examines the challenges facing the principle of grace so that the ambiguities of the rule may be resolved. But despite the strong responses to the challenges posed by the grace, it seems that the alternative proposal of "the Proof of wisdom" is better.

Key words: principle of grace, duty, Ash'arites, Incumbency from Allah Incumbency towards Allah, proof of wisdom.


An Analysis of the Infallible Imams' States in Hereafter

Mohammadhossein Faryab

Abstract

The infallible imams are God’s vicegerents in the universe. Shias are most familiar with Imams’ states in the very material world, while the manifestation of all their states in this world is not possible due to its limitations. Using a mainly traditional approach, the present paper investigates and analyzes hereafter states and stations of the infallible Imams in three periods of intermediate world, last Judgment and heaven. The most important findings show that Imams (peace be upon them) are God’s authority over His servants in all three worlds and have special states among which are mediation of grace, reckoning the servants’ deeds, dividing the heaven and hell.

 

Key words: imamate, imam’s states, intermediate world, last Judgment, heaven.


The Methods of Resolving Conflict between Science and Religion from Allamah Tabatabaii's View

Javad Goli

Abstract

Allamah Tabatabaii refutes the view that science conflicts with religion and believes in their harmony. To prove his view, he provides some methods to resolve the claimed conflict between religion and science, and criticizes and rejects the arguments offered by proponents of the conflict. The present paper seeks to provide the methods of resolving the conflict from Allamah Tabatabaii's view. To this end, it reviews and classifies the methods of resolving the conflict through referring to Allamah Tabatabaii's works. According to Allamah Tabatabaii, the methods of resolving the conflict are divided into two groups: the methods of resolving conflicts related to science and the methods of resolving conflicts related to religion. Such methods as taking conflicting scientific views as assumptions and providing a religious interpretation for a scientific theory are categorized in the first group, and taking the relationship between immaterial and material causes as a longitudinal one and regarding the interpretation of religious texts as allegorical are categorized in the second group.

Key words: Allamah Tabatabaii, science, religion, conflict between science and religion, the ways of resolving the conflict between science and religion.   


An Analytical and Comparative Evaluation of the Evidence and Documentation of Women’s Rights to visit Tombs from the Perspective of Islamic Denominations and the Wahhabis with an Emphasis on the Ideas of Ibn Taymiyyah

Hamza Ali Bahrami

Abstract

In the current climate of change, the world witnesses uncontrolled growth of the seemingly Muslim Salafi and Takfiri extremist groups, called "Wahhabi" or "Da’eshi". According to this group, women have a lowly and inferior position and are often deprived of having equal rights with men. Unfortunately, Salafis introduce their ideas as "pure monotheism" and true Islam, and regard the beliefs of other Muslims and their opponents as heresy, polytheism and unfaith. One of the manifestations and examples of this cruelty and religious deviation is that women are prohibited from visiting tombs and holding funerals. The most prominent intellectual leader and innovator of the beliefs of this sect is Ibn Taymiyyah. Through a library-based, analytical and comparative study of the sources of Ibn Taymiya and the Sunnis, this paper seeks to discover the true ruling regarding women’s visitation of tombs in the Qur´an, Sunna and the conduct of the early Muslims. Accordingly, having described and assessed the views of Ibn Taymiyyah and his provision of documentation and organizing the evidence and documentation of women’s permission for visitation of tombs and the views of the four Sunni denominations, the paper finally concludes that the evidence and arguments provided by Ibn Taymiyyah and his followers are weak and unreliable, and there is abundant evidence for women’s permission for visitation of tombs.

Key words: visitation of tombs, women, Ibn Taymiyyah, the Sunni.


The Kalami Analysis of the Lack of Inconsistency between Population Growth and Poverty Challenge

Seyyed Morteza Mosavi/ Mohammad Ja'fari

Abstract

The lack of right and realistic insight into the nature of poverty and the way of its relation with childbearing is one of the major factors in the reduction of motivation in the two institutions of family and government for adopting a firm policy on child bearing and Population growth, gradually bringing the society into the state of population crisis. Through analyzing divine sustenance, the aim of this research is to achieve a realistic interpretation of the relationship between poverty and childbearing as well as an improved view of economic family lifestyle , thereby witnessing the society's desire for an increase in the population. Drawing upon descriptive-analytical method and rational-Kalami approach and as well as relying on the Islamic principles, this research concludes that not only an increase in the population is not to be taken as the cause of poverty and its growing level increase, but also if the people of a monotheistic society move in the path of God's servanthood, it can be the symbol of divine mercy and a means of producing wealth and development. Likewise, by considering the reality of poverty and finding identifying the divine and human factors in the production of poverty and the proper way to combat(eliminate) it inviting to increase population can be recommended even to poor people.

Key words: an increase in population, childbearing, divine sustenance, poverty.


The Intellectual and Doctrinal Foundations of Hafiz-e Shirazi

Hassan Ahmadi

Abstract

Historically, even according to some historical traditions, in the days of Khajeh Hafez Shirazi, there were some who, for various purposes and by having recourse to some ambiguous versus, introduced the 8th century much-loved eloquent poet of Shiraz as a blasphemer and heretic who was alien to the doctrinal principles of Islam. Extracting the intellectual foundations of Khajeh Hafiz-e Shirazi from his only remaining source, the collection of his poetry, this study seeks to find a reasonable answer to this fundamental question as to whether the doctrinal attitude of Iran’s man of lyric poetry is truly divine. Should he be considered as being in the state of spiritual retreat to the Qibla of people of faith? Is it right to consider the ragged cloak of atheism as fitting the stature of the genius of Shiraz and regard and introduce him as being in harmony with the residents of the tribe of darkness? The findings of this research work indicate clear evidence that Hafiz-e Shirazi shows unaffected and strong attachment to the intellectual and doctrinal principles and foundations of Islam in the realms of ontology, anthropology and eschatology.

Key words: Hafiz, God, fate, man, resurrection.


A Glance over Ali Shari’ati’s Views of History and Shi'a's Beliefs

Mohammad Ali Yosefizadeh/ Hamed Montazeri Moghadam

Abstract

This paper investigates Ali Shari'ti views of Shi’ism, focusing upon his two books of ''Shi'a'' and ‘Alawite Shi’ism and Safavid Shi’ism’. Relying on his sociological view, Shari'ti, seeks to investigate religion based on a secular viewpoint. Therefore, his conception of '' intercession'' and ''justice'' and certain other issues is different from the one offered in Islamic traditions. Among the infallible Imams (pbuh) and their followers, he has taken into serious consideration those Imams who have risen in revolt against the dictorship of the ruling class, and among Imams' followers he speaks more about Abuzar and makes no mention of other figures among Imams' followers. In certain occasions, he raises a topic for discussion without any reason with no reference to a verse or tradition as evidence. The present paper has explained the subject in question using analytical-descriptive method.

 

Key words: Shari'ti, Shi’ism, worldliness, justice.