Real Shiahs and the Grief at the Deprivation of Communing with the Beloved

Allameh Mohammd Taqi Mesbah


Which is desirable in Islam, grief or happiness? The answer to this question differ according to the different situations. Although man will never be without grief in the material world, he is always in search of happiness by nature and he is elusive of grief. However, this aspect of creation is due to the fact that man is created to be tested. We have duties towards each grief, happiness, blast and disconformity, and we are being tested for each one of them. Should we forget Allah at once and become aggressive and proud, when we are blessed with an asset? Or do we gratify Allah in all situations? In Islam, if the source of happiness and grief is valuable, then it is good, if not, they are not desirable. There will be sufficient rewards for desirable happiness and grief. A believer must be aware of the fact that whatever he has, belongs to Allah, and there is always something good in losing them. There is a blessing in disguise. 

Key words: real Devil, happiness, grief, trial.

Imam Ali (Peace be upon him) and Heroic Flexibility: Foundations, Grounds and Features

Mahdi Samiei / Mahdi Mardani(Golestani)


Emphasized by the great Supreme Leader, the term Heroic Flexibility has been greatly extended through contemporary political literature. This study aims at answering the question that is it possible to consider this terminology on the basis of Islamic foundations and allocate a religious position by analyzing religious scripts and finding its roots in Imam Ali`s (Peace Be Upon Him) words and lifestyle? The findings that are driven by the method of exploratory and analyzing Imam Ali`s (Peace Be Upon Him) political lifestyle in interaction with the oppositions especially during the five-year governing, show that Imam Ali (Peace Be Upon Him) believed in the content of this terminology and he used it in various situations. In such a manner that sustainability in principles and tolerance in the deeds are two of the most important features of heroic flexibility. They are based on esteem-orientation and value-orientation and they are formed in the context of matters like; lack of support from people, lack of support from the scholars and hypocrisy.

Key words: heroic flexibility tactic, the thought of Imam Ali (p.b.u.h), Imam Ali`s (Peace Be Upon Him) social lifestyle, Imam Ali`s (p.b.u.h) political literature.          

The Role of Society in Changing or Reforming People`s Lifestyle

Mohammad Kaviani Arani / Hafizollah Fouladi


Recently, many studies have been done in Iran regarding lifestyle with individual approach in our country. The present paper seeks to analyze the role of society and social structures in the formation of lifestyle and respond to the question that if the social institutions have any roles in changing or reforming lifestyles? Using a psychological, social and Islamic approach and an analytic method, this study has been done by a documentary method. The findings show that: 1. There has been insufficient attention in the study of Iranian-Islamic lifestyle to the role of society and social structures. 2. In the process of training and growth, these institutions lead people to choose the lifestyle that is compatible with themselves. 3. Changing or reforming lifestyle via social structures is a gradual act not spontaneous; consequently, to reform the lifestyle in the society one must pay a special attention to the structures and institutions and institutionalizing the certain concepts and behaviors and reform or establish what is needed.

Key words: lifestyle, society, institution, Islam, cultural engineering.     

Analyzing the Concept of ((Lifestyle)) from the view Point of Bourdieu

Habibollah Najafi / Seyyed Hossein Sharafoddin


Pier Bourdieu is one of the most prominent theorists in the area of lifestyle, whose works are of the most important resources in this area. The question asked by this paper, in which a descriptive-analytical and library-based method is used, is: what, according to Bourdieu are the real concept of lifestyle and the factors and forces that are effective on its creation, stability and alteration? The findings show that Bourdieu analyzes the concept of lifestyle in conjunction with concepts like; habitus, Capital Square and attitude. He believes that lifestyle are behaviors that are specifically categorized and are the outcome of individual understandings as to the society and their position in various aspects of society. Also lifestyle is systematized activities that is originated from habitus and attitudes of an individual and it has physical reality and it is manifested. While, symbolically lifestyle gives identity to the individuals and groups of the people in society and it is the factor that distinguishes various layers from each other in the society.

Key words: habitus, square, capital, attitude, lifestyle, social atmosphere, class.  

The Challenges Facing Cultural Identity and Education in the Era of Globalization

Mohammad Fouladi / Nahid Rezaei


Globalization is an inevitable trend that has commenced since the 19th century and nowadays it is one of the most controversial topics in the world; a phenomenon that plays a critical role in economic, social and cultural decisions and activities of people and has minimized the borders. Primarily, this process has been successful in the area of economy and gradually has been extended to the other areas. However, some believe that globalization has destructed the cultural identity and native cultures and others decline this belief and claim that globalization in its nature maintains and strengthens the culture. This study aims at analyzing the process of globalization, culture and its effect on the cultural identity and education and training in six cultural issues: the features of globalization, globalization and the emergence of multiple identities, cultural identity crisis and its harms, cultural globalization`s common threats and opportunities, the views of pros and cons of education and training globalization, education and training globalization`s common threats and opportunities.

Key words: cultural identity, education and training, globalization, globalization challenges.  

Religion and Its Role in Students` Social Responsibility

 Seifollah Fazlollahi Ghomeishi / Afsaneh Fadakar


The current paper aims at analyzing the role of religion in students` social responsibility. The method used in this paper is descriptive-correlational and the statistical population is the Payam Nour University students of Qom. 320 students were randomly chosen. The data were collected from two standard questionnaires; religion and responsibility with the stability of 0.73 and 0.71 based on Cronbache`s alpha. To analyze the data, descriptive and inferential methods for Pierson`s test and T for comparing two independent groups and Z Fischer were used. The findings show that: 1. There is a positive and significant correlation between religion and social responsibility on the scale of 0/154. 2. There is a significant relationship between performing obligatory religious acts and students` social responsibility. 3. There is a significant relationship between performing recommended religious acts and students` social responsibility. 4. There is a significant relationship between observing religious sings and students` social responsibility. 5. There is no difference between religious aspects and social responsibility among male or female students.


Key words: religiousness, social responsibility, performing obligatory religious acts, performing recommended acts, observing religious rules.

The Propaganda Tool of Wahhabism Worldwide

Rasool Khezerlou / Seyyed Hossein Sharafoddin


Wahhabism must not be considered merely as an intellectual- ideological system or a religious-historical sect, rather it is considered as a political-security process and as an ideological tool to promote imperialistic goals. The present study attempts to analyze some of the interferes made by this sect in the Islamic written heritage and their drastic actions by utilizing modern media technologies. All Muslims must preserve the tradition and interpret and propagate it accurately. They must also react properly toward the perversions, misunderstandings and intellectual deviations. In this descriptive-analytic research some of the activities of Amway-Wahhabi school are analyzed. The basic foundations of this study are; promo-destructive policies of Wahhabism as the greatest threat not only for Islam, but also for the whole world, their tactics and ploys in the real world and on internet in order to destroy the original sources of Islam`s history and narrations, dissemination of biased and oriented interpretations as the idea of consensus of Islamic scholars, the intensification and deepening of sectarian debates, poor Shiites historic and religious facade in the public eyes of Muslims and the world, dealing with the growing trend of the Islamic Revolution and deviating the Islamic awakening movement. Also, resenting practical solutions to deal with different activities of this deviating process is the other achievement of this paper.


Key words: Wahhabism, strategy, propaganda tool, tactic, religious texts, historical heritage, the media.

Identity Crisis

Hassan Yousef Zadeh


In sociology, self-estrangement is a situation in which the thing that man creates or is of his features recedes from him. There is also a type of self-estrangement in which man`s will even in thought, plays a minimum role that is called; identical self-estrangement. Nowadays, this kind of self-estrangement is the product of a situation whose most important feature is a fake social life. In this type of self-estrangement another thought is placed in man`s mind so that identical self-estrangement occurs. Using mass media theories and aside from constructionism approach as a theoretical framework and method, this paper seeks at presenting a critical approach toward identical self-estrangement, considering Islamic teachings. The findings show that comprehensive influence of mass media and their parallel policies in advancing western capitalism goals and the content of training system especially humanitarian are the most important factors in identical self-estrangement. On the contrary to the common beliefs about self-estrangement that objectivism is considered to be the criterion of self-estrangement, in identical self-estrangement false and irrelevant ideas are placed in man`s mind. This type of self-estrangement belongs to eastern and third world countries.


Key words: self-estrangement, modern self-estrangement, identity crisis, self-forgetting, constructionism, the effects of the media.

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