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The Piety and Distinctive Traits of Devout Shiahs

Allameh Mohammad Taqi Misbah


This paper focuses on the explanation of the words of Imam Ali (p.b.u.h) made by Allamah Misbah regarding the devout Shiahs` conduct. Among the characteristics of the Shiahs is their feeling of happiness and grief, which should be expressed with moderation. Feeling happiness or grief can have positive or negative consequences and can be expressed about things related to this world or the hereafter. Extremism in expressing happiness or grief is blameworthy. both Committing injustice or being a victim of injustice is one or the results of the way one is brought up. The existence of oppressors is ascribed to adopting a corrupted educational system, a question, to which religious education pay special attention.

Also piety, chastity, having a sense of responsibility, peaching Islam and taking vigorous actions to spread it are among shiahs`, distinctive traits.

Key words: piety and Shiahs, happiness and grief, oppression, chastity.       

Imitation to God; the Ultimate Aim of Philosophy

Mohammad Salem Mohseni / Habibollah Ehsani


One of the purposes of philosophy is recognition of truth and man`s prosperity through realizing life`s truth. However, the greatest purpose of philosophy is imitation of human to God. Many Muslim philosophers believe that man`s God-like ability is the ultimate purpose of philosophy. The current paper aims at discussing man`s God-like ability as the ultimate purpose of philosophy and highlighting its importance and position in Islamic philosophy, especially transcendent phylosophy. This matter is remarked in philosophical works via the definition of philosophy. Various purposes are taken into consideration in Islamic philosophy, but at last they believe that the ultimate purpose of philosophy is man`s God-like ability. Although man`s God-like ability is remarked in the philosophers before Sadra, it is observed in a better way in transcendent phylosophy. This study uses descriptive-analytic method.

Key words: imitation to God, man`s self perfection, purpose-oriented definition, ultimate purpose of philosophy.

A Comparison between Mulla Sadra`s Particular Unity and Spinoza`s Pantheistic Theory

Fereshteh Nour Alizadeh


The current study aims at analyzing the similarities and differences between the viewpoint of Mulla Sadra and Spinoza about pantheism. Using a descriptive-content analytic and a documentary method this paper compares Mulla Sadra`s particular unity and pantheistic theory of Spinoza. Mulla Sadra and Spinoza have an agreement on the concepts like; the existence of real on the essence, the objectivity of the traits, limitlessness, inalterability, the reality of the oneness. However, it comes to the understanding that the similarities between the viewpoints of Mulla Sadra and Spinoza are not apparent in pantheistic theory, and this philosopher does not believe in God solely.

Key words: self-subsistent entity, unity of existence, ultimately simple, necessary existing, pantheism.

Brief Glance at the Topics of Philosophical Psychology

Morteza Rezaei


Psychology is the branch of knowledge which deals with soul and its principles and characteristics. By a philosophical view on self, philosophers have earned many achievements. Of the most important topics that the philosophers have analyzed include: definition and identifying the self, the existence of self, the self being material or single, the power of self, self being new or old, unity or plurality of self, the relationship between self and body, self being fixed or dynamic, self being immortal or mortal, the prosperity of hardship of self and paradox of self. The current paper aims at defining these topics and reviewing them simply, especially by considering Ibn-Sina and Mulla Sadra`s view, hoping that topics about self extends accordingly by the struggle of the scholars and researchers.

Key words: soul, psychology, abstracting of soul, the faculties of soul, the relationship between the soul and the body, contingence of soul, immortality of soul.

An Inquiry into Exalted or Secular Nature of (on the Basis of Transcendent Philosophy)

Mohsen Izadi


According to the transcendent philosophy, man`s spirit habits origin in the body, the spirit is joined to the body and the body is lower to the rank than the spirit. The physical body- that is one of the ranks of man`s degree of existence- and material world- that embraces man`s existence- have prepared the grounds for the corporeality and materiality of man`s existence. Therefore; unless human develops his capacities in line with theoretical intellect and experimental intellect by working hard and holding on to the divine religion. His or her pursuit of perfection will end in the stage of sensation and imagination. According to Mulla Sadra only a few people will reach the stage of intellectual revolution. Sensation and imagination are the standpoint of most people`s perfection. Using an analytical-descriptive method and an ontological approach, the present paper aims at analyzing the process of greatness or secularism of the human by an ontological approach. Philosophical research works, Quranic verses, Infallibles` narrations, earlier studies and historical experiences show that exalted and heavenly people are in majority and secularists and worldly people are in minority.

Key words: Mulla Sadra, self, intellect, sensation, imagination, exalted, secular.

An Inquiry into the "Demonstration of Necessity and Possibility" in Western Philosophy with Emphasis on Thomas Aquinas`s Exposition

Roya BanaKar


The question of the existence of Allah has long been a source of interest to philosophers who have made tremendous efforts in this regard and came up with many demonstrations. Farabi has presented the demonstration of "necessity and possibility", which is considered among the strongest evidence on the existence of God.

After Farabi, other especially Muslim philosophers, philosophers, presented differing views about it. Ibn Sina`s demonstration is one of the earlier and most well-known expositions of the evidence on the existence of God. Using an analytical-theoretical approach, this paper analyzes Ibn Sina`s demonstration of necessity and possibility and examines the works of western scholars who consider the mentioned demonstration as a cosmological evidence. Aquinas`s exposition is among the most famous expositions of this demonstration in the West. This study reviews this demonstration from the viewpoint of Aquinas, and comments on it.


Key words: Ibn Sina, Thomas Aquinas, demonstration of necessity and possibility, nullity of circularity.

Carnap and His Contribution to Analytical Philosophy

Faezeh Barzegar Tabrizi


Analytical philosophy which developed in the late 19th century and culminated in the middle of the 20th century is based on three basic approaches: empiricism which is centred on the principle of verifiability, considering logic as a tool, and linguistic analysis. Concentrating on these three approaches, Carnap, one of the brilliant scholars, has played a pivotal role in the development of analytical philosophy. The present paper aims at examining the effect of such great scholars like, Ferge, Russel, Vitgenschtien on Carnap`s analytical philosophy and showing the effect of his approach on the development of analytical philosophy. This paper seeks in its last part to offer a new no-nonsense approach to analytical philosophy by presenting a Carnap`s detailed exposition and innovations in these three areas.


Key words: analytical philosophy, empiricism, the principle of verifiability, linguistic analysis, significance.

An Inquiry into Athir al-Din Abhari`s Rational Thoughts

Akbar Faedeei


Athir al-Din Abhari, an eminent philosopher and logician of the 7th century AH, has played a pivotal role in the advancement of Avicennian logic. Understanding his views about logic is necessary for realizing the views and methods of logicians who came after him. Extending some of Ibn Sina`s innovations and reshaping some of Fakhr Razi`s views, he has own views. Using an analytical-descriptive method, this paper seeks to present some of his views, including; following Ibn Sina`s two-Tierd logic, discovering the physical proposition and its independent convention it as a special proposition, discovering the conversion of the particular negative in the two special properties, adding three moods to the concluding  moods of the fourth figure in complex modal propositions, evidence of asserting the self, the composite quiddity of judgment negating the assumption that all aspects are self-evident, negating the interrelation between the significance of commensuration and consecutive significance, adding the mental proposition to the classification of categorical determinate proposition into a true proposition and external proposition.


Key words: physical proposition, conversion in two special properties, concept and judgement, Avicennian logic, Athir al-Din Abhari.

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