قيمت مقاله الكترونيكي: 

Humility and Submission of the True Believers to God

Ayatollah Allameh Mohammad Taqi Misbah


In previous sessions, we discussed ten signs of real Shi'a and the righteous, and now we are studying the eleventh sign: humility in worship, the sign that Amir al-Mu'minan has referred to in the sentence "and humble in their worship". The signs and attributes that the Imam has expressed in his sermon related to real Shiites and true believers, and their expression can provide the cause of excellence and evolution in believers, so that they know about the practical models and attributes of the true faith, and strive to improve and have those valuable qualities. Khoshu’ is a state of modesty, submissiveness, and surrender that occurs in the heart, and its outcomes and effects appear in human’s behavior. Khozu’ also means humbleness and shamefulness that is considered to be the result of Khoshu’. This paper deals with this topic in detail.

Key words: khoshu’, khozu’, fear of God, causes of fear.

The Relationship between Natural Sciences and Religion
in the Viewpoint of Ayatollah Misbah

Mohammad Ali Mohiti Ardakan / Assistant Professor Department of Philosophy IKI      hekmatquestion@gmail.com

Received: 2017/09/28 - Accepted: 2018/02/14


The relationship between natural sciences and religion is one of the most important issues that has been raised in recent years with the rise of the discussion of "religious science and the Islamization of sciences". Using the descriptive-analytical method, the present paper analyzes this issue from the viewpoint of Ayatollah Misbah. After examining two general views on the relationship between natural sciences and religion, this paper explains the criteria for the religiousness of science, and in the most important part, through the explanations presented in the paper, it comes to the conclusion that there is not any serious incompatibility between natural sciences and religion, rather there is a considerable mutual cooperation between the natural sciences and religion. Issuance of a decree for scientific subjects, extension of the circle of empirical knowledge, confirmation of science, addition of richness to empirical issues and giving direction to the use of science are some examples of the contribution of religion to science. Identifying the subject matter and providing new grounds for religious analysis, determining the details of religious education, such as the expressing of conditions and obstacles, proving some religious teachings, and leading to a better understanding of religious issues can be considered as the helps of religion to science.

Key words: natural sciences, religion, Ayatollah Misbah, religious science, conflict.

A Comparative Study of "Freedom" and "Responsibility"
from the Viewpoint of Ayatollah Misbah and Jean-Paul Sartre

 Seyyed Aminallah Ahmadiani Moghaddam / Level 3 at Seminary and BA in Philosophy IKI ahmadiani624@gmail.com

Mahmoud Namazi / Assistant Professor Department of Philosophy IKI                                            namazi@qabas.net

Received: 2017/06/09 - Accepted: 2017/12/04


"Freedom" and its boundaries have long been considered by humans. As a limiting factor for

human’s freedom, "responsibility" has also been discussed by philosophers of ethics. Ayatollah Misbah and Jean-Paul Sartre are among the philosophers who have focused on these two issues. Since one of these two philosophers is a Muslim and monotheist, and the other one belongs to the atheistic school of Existentialism, they naturally have many disputes and disagreements about man’s "freedom" and "responsibility". Sartre considers man as equal to freedom, and argues that the only state in which man is not free is when he cannot be free. He also believes in a global responsibility for man. On the other hand, Ayatollah Misbah emphasizes on human’s freedom and believes in a variety of responsibilities for human. Given the great difference between the views of these two philosophers, the present paper examines their views in a comparative way.

Key words: Ayatollah Misbah, Sartre, freedom, responsibility.

Reflections on Humanism

Vahid Kangarani Farahani / MA in Applied Ethics the Institute of Ethics and Education                                   vahidfarahani86@gmail.com

Received: 2017/08/02 - Accepted: 2018/01/13


Leading to the emergence of various intellectual and political schools, "Humanism" has been one of the major intellectual movements in the history of Western thought and modernity. With the slogan of the revival of human values and the return to the Roman and ancient Greek times, this school which is presented as a point of differentiation between religious and secular thinking has developed in the era of renaissance in the West in the light of the weaknesses of the church in the theoretical and practical areas. With the introduction of new philosophies by Descartes, Kant and other Western scholars, it found its way into philosophy, and eventually, after several stages, it is now present in all Western schools and thoughts. The present research seeks to provide a proper formulation of humanism as a dominant school in the West's civilization, and discuss its historical context and intellectual features in epistemological and ontological areas. The research method is documentive-library based, and its findings include explaining four historical periods of humanism and discussing the contradiction between humanism and religious thinking.

Key words: humanism, human’s authenticity, humanism, self-founded intellectuality, human-centeredness

The Concomitance of Causality and its Relationship with Free Choice

 Ezzat Gharavi Na’ini / Level 4 of Islamic Philosophy of the Transcendent Philosophy Jame’at al-Zahra                           e.qnaeini@gmail.com

Mohammad Sarbakhshi / Assistant Professor Department of Philosophy IKI                   Sarbakhshi50@Yahoo.com

Received: 2017/07/30 - Accepted: 2018/01/10


The relationship between free choice and the philosophical principle of "causal" predestination is an issue that has long been the subject of controversy among Islamic scholars including philosophers, theologians and fundamentalists. The renowned Islamic scholars do not consider free choice inconsistent with this rational and necessary law, but most theologians argue that it is against free choice. Therefore, they regard the law of "causal predestination" as invalid. Some of fundamentalists believe in the differentiation of this law, and hold that this law applies only to natural and material causes, not to free-willed actions. Considering the fact that the subject of this paper is an issue that must be studied in the works of philosophers, thinkers and experts in this field, the paper uses library sources for data collection; it has a descriptive –analytical research method and is fundamental in terms of purpose. While explaining and proving the philosophical law of "causal predestination”, this


paper analyzes the opponents’ views and their arguments, and tries to resolve the apparent incompatibility between free choice and the rational law of "causal concomitance" or "causal predestination". Reflecting on this rational principle and law and its analysis, it becomes clear that famous scholars are right about the point that no effect has the possibility of violating its complete cause and, with the existence of complete cause, the realization of the effect is definite and certain. There are no exceptions to this rational law, even in the case of free-willed actions. Moreover, its acceptance never requires predestination; conversely, if we do not accept this law in the case of free-willed actions, the agent’s free choice will be under question, because violation from free choice will be necessary, and this is inconsistent with the causality of the free agent’s will in the occurrence of the action.

Key words: principle of causality, causal necessity, causal concomitance, free choice, free will, a thing will exist only if its existence reaches the stage of necessity, preference


A Review of Instrumentalism and its Relationship
with the Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

Sayyid Abulqasem Hosseini Kamaroliya / MA in the Philosophy of Science IKI            s.ahosseini113@yahoo.com

Received: 2017/09/04 - Accepted: 2018/02/12


The "quantum" theory with Copenhagen's interpretation is a new twentieth century theory which studies subatomic objects. This interpretation of quantum mechanics has certain epistemological bases. Instrumentalism, in the three ontological, semantic and epistemological areas, is one of the main foundations of this interpretation. In the critique of this epistemological basis of the quantum theory, one can argue that the internal perspective from the position of an empirical scientist leads us to realism. But the external perspective of history and the course of the development of science shows that instrumentalism is a correct theory. It is worth noting that, using a descriptive- analytical method, this paper has challenged the instrumentalist perspective of the proponents of Copenhagen's interpretation and physicists such as Schrödinger and Einstein, and one can even witness realism in some of Heisenberg's interpretations.

Key words: instrumentalism, realism, Copenhagen interpretation, quantum mechanics\


Sensations and their Epistemic Value from the Perspective of Ibn Sina

 Alireza Sane’i / MA in Philosophy IKI                                                                                              alirezasanei52@yahoo.com

Mahdi Akbari Baghkheirati / Level Three at Qom Seminary                                                  mehdyakbari@yahoo.com

Received: 2017/05/13 - Accepted: 2017/10/09


Among the sources of knowledge, sensory perception plays an outstanding role, since it is the foundation of many conceptual and affirmative perceptions. Like many thinkers, Ibn Sina has raised many points about sensory perception. He does not regard the senses as certain, but he has mentioned various roles and functions for them, including the role of senses in imaginations and affirmations. Although his statements on the question of the originality of reason or sense in imaginations may seem vague at first, with a little attention to his works, it becomes clear that he, like most Muslim philosophers, believes in the originality of reason. The present study is a theoretical and developmental research, its information and materials are collected through documentary method and it is analyzed intellectually not statistically.

Key words: Sense, Ibn Sina, authenticity of sense, authenticity of reason, epistemology


Copulative Being from the Perspective of Sadr al-Muta’allehin

 Ismail Shabandari / MA Student of Philosophy IKI                                                                                    esmail.sh@iran.ir

Mohammad Sarbakhshi / Assistant Professor Department of Philosophy IKI                   Sarbakhshi50@Yahoo.com

Received: 2017/08/09 - Accepted: 2018/01/17



There are two logical and philosophical terms for "the copulative being or the inhering existence ". This term was first introduced in logic for the relationship among propositions. In logic, the inhering existence has an in- something-else existence and is contrast to the existence in -itself. Philosophically, the copulative being has an existence for –something- else and is opposite the independent and for-itself existence. According to Sadr al-Muta’allehin, the copulative being has two terms in the philosopher's words: a literal meaning referred to as the relation of the propositions, and the other meaning as the existence for –something-else. By forging a new term for the copulative being and proving the existence of a caused inhering being, Sadr al-Muta’allehin considers it as lacking an existence independent of its cause. In his view, the caused is not referable and no decree is carried on it without negligence. From the caused inhering existence, he concludes the particular unity of being. Using the descriptive method, this paper seeks to present and study the arguments of Sadr al-Muta’allehin for proving the copulative being. It should be said that although the caused existence can be proved, it does not require particular unity.

Key words: Sadr al-Muta’allehin, existence, independent existence, inhering existence, the caused copulative being