قيمت مقاله الكترونيكي: 

Acuity, Moderation, Dignity and Patience of Real Shiites in the Words of Amir-Mu'minan Ali (pbuh)

Ayatollah Allameh Mohammad Taqi Misbah


This paper is a description of the words of Amir al-Mu'minan Ali (pbuh) concerning the characteristics of the Shiites. Some Shiite's attributes are that they have great patience with people, they observe moderation when they are wealthy, they are honorable when they are destitute, and they are tolerant in hardships. The real Shiites understand the issues and know people with keen understanding and sharp-sightedness, but do not hasten to act. Preserving honor and dignity is one of the most important recommendations of Islam and a great value. Retention of and adherence to faith is the right path, and non-deviation is in any case the recommendation of Islam. One of the other recommendations of Islam to the believers is avoiding impatience, complaining and bewailing at the time of difficulties, diseases and financial losses.

Key words: tolerance, moderation, moderateness, tolerance to problems.

The Role of Christ in the Mahdavi Government

     Hossein Azizi / Assistant Professor of History University of Isfahan


Mohammad Ya’ghubzadeh / MA in Teaching Islamic Studies, University of Isfahan


This paper examines the historic role of Jesus Christ, son of Mary, in the era of the appearance of Imam Mahdi and in his government. The research is conducted using a library-based data collection method and a descriptive -analytical research method is. In the hadiths on Mahdiism, Jesus is mentioned as one of the followers of Imam Mahdi. In the Age of Appearance, he comes from heaven and prays with Imam Mahdi. This prayer proves that even the Prophet of God is the servant and the minister of the government of Mahdi, and the nature of his uprising is based on religion and is meant to retain the religion of God. In Islamic narrations, Imam Mahdi is the just leader of the religious global Revolution. Christ will try alongside him in the process of globalizing the culture of Islamic justice and will remove the obstacles. Therefore, one of the most influential factors in the advancement of this global revolution is the appearance of Christ alongside Imam Mahdi. He will be the cruelty-fighting commander of the Mahdavi government and will denounce the cross, the Antichrist, and Gog and Magog. All this shows how hard and adventurous is the battle of the promised Mahdi with the likes of Gog and Magog and his soft war against the tricks and deceits of the Antichrist.

Key words: Mahdi, Mahdavi State, Messiah, antichrist, Gog and Magog.

A Comparative Study of the Effect of Prayer on the Transcendental Tendencies of Man from the Perspective of Shiism and Catholicism

Mohajer Mahdavirad / MA in Religions, Imam Khomeini Institute of Education and Research



Prayer has a special status in the Shiite and Catholic religions. The importance of prayer in these two religions and its constructive effects, and the important role of tendencies in achieving perfection on the one hand, and the importance of comparative discussion between these two religions, on the other hand, led the author to examine the effect of prayer on tendencies, one of the existential aspects of man, from the perspective of Shi'ism and Catholicism and express their similarities and differences. The research method is descriptive -analytical. The prayer of the Shiites is to call God and desire for him. The ultimate perfection of a Shiite is nearness to God. The Catholic prayer is the ascension of the mind to God and the pursuit of goodness, and the Catholic perfection is similarity to Christ. Actualizing perfection, truthfulness, and seeking God are some of the common points of these two religions. On the other hand, some of the differences in the influence of prayer on tendencies from the point of view of Shia and Catholicism include focus on receiving spiritual knowledge from the Holy Spirit, granting of love and hope, emphasis on being the son of God, and hope in Catholic prayer, and also focus on giving knowledge through content as the context of tendency, acquisition of love and hope, emphasis on human’s servitude to God, and the balance between fear and hope in Shiite’s prayer.

Key words: prayer, perfection, tendency, Shiite, Catholic.

A Comparative Study of the Principles of "Universality of Religion" in Shiism and Catholic Christianity

Mohammad Baqer Wali Abarghuyee / MA Student of Religious Studies, Imam Khomeini Institute of Educational and Research               valiabarghoei@gmail.com

Mohammad Hosein Taheri Akordi/ Assistant Professor of Religions, Imam Khomeini Institute of Educational and Research                      Taheri-akerdi@iki.ac.ir


"Universality of Religion" means the capacities of a religion for a global government. This topic is one of the most controversial issues among Muslim and Catholic scholars, but has not yet been studied comparatively between Christianity and Islam. Using a descriptive - analytical method, this research deals with the similarities and differences between Shi'ism and Catholicism in the principles of universality of religion. In terms of the traditional evidence of universality and immortality, the foundations of the universality of religion are the same in Catholic Christianity and Shiism. In both, there are mentions of the universality of the holy book; however, in Christianity, there are contradictory remarks attributed to Jesus Christ, whereas in Shi'ism, all the foundations of universality are quite consistent. In Shi'ism, the foundations of universality are rational and based on Qur'anic verses and traditions, but in Christianity, the foundations of the universality of religion are not entirely consistent, but sometimes in contradiction. It is worth mentioning that some foundations are special to Shiism, and Christianity is deprived of these foundations.

Key words: comparative study, fundamentals, universality, Catholic Christianity, Shiism.

The Ark of the Covenant from the Perspective of the Quran and the Torah

Sayed Abdolhadi Hosseini / MA in Religious Studies, Imam Khomeini Institute of Education and Research            seyyedhadihoseini@yahoo.com


The Jewish culture is shaped by some symbols. Among these symbols, which have in fact created the history of Judaism, "the ark of the covenant" has a special significance, because the original version of the Torah, the Ten Commandments, has been in this ark and provided security and peace of mind for the Israelites in the wars. This ark was a symbol given to the kingdom of Talout by the Lord and caused the elimination of differences between the people in conflicts and wars. Before the destruction of the temple by Nebuchadnezzar in 586 BC, the arch of the covenant was with the Israelites, but has since disappeared, and so far there has been no trace of it. ,Using a descriptive-analytical method and a comparative approach, this paper studies the formation of this religious symbol and its significance and status with the Israelites. In this regard, it has used the original texts of Islam and Judaism, i.e. the Qur'an and the Torah.

Key words: Arch of the covenant, the Israelites, Moses, Aaron, symbol, Qur'an, Torah.

Explaining the Christian Anthropological System (with an Emphasis on the Romans Treatise)

Seyyed Mohammad Hassan Saleh / PhD Student of Religions and Mysticism, Imam Khomeini Institute of Education and Research                     m.hasansaleh2010@gmail.com


After Jesus Christ, Paul is the most influential figure in the coordination and completion of Christianity, insomuch that Christian theology can be called "Pauline Theology." Paul's letters, which are considered his only written legacy, contain a special anthropology, according to which the question of the nature of man has been answered. In this paper, the main components of his anthropology are extracted by a direct reference to Paul's letters and, in particular, the "Romans" treatise. According to the findings of this study, human life is divided into three primitives, pre-crucifixion, and post-crucifixion. Due to the events in Eden's garden and the sin of Adam and Eve, the primitive man suffered death and inclination to sin; but with the redemptive death of the Jesus and his crucifixion, humans regained their justice and sacredness, and could return to their original purity through their belief in Christ.

Key words: Paul, anthropology, intrinsic Sin, Romans treaties, justice.

Schleiermacher and the Humanistic Reading of Christian Theology

Seyyed Ali Hasani / Associate Professor of Imam Khomeini institute of education and Research



The present paper deals with an analysis and explanation of the role of humanism in Frederick Schleiermacher's thoughts and ideas. The aim of the research is to show the effect of humanism in the mindset of a figure that is considered the pioneer of modern theology and plays an important role in theological ideas. Using a descriptive-analytical method, this paper explores the family conditions, the scientific and cultural environment of the Schleiermacher’s community and his ideas and thoughts. It concludes that he was strongly influenced by humanism, and his theological ideas, which were meant to overcome the problems caused by the new scientific achievements for Christian theology, were entirely based on the principles of humanism.

Key words: Humanism, Schleiermacher, effect, theological thoughts, Christian theology.

The Civilization and Architecture of the Ayasofya Mosque

Mohammad Fuladi / Associate Professor of Sociology, Imam Khomeini Institute of Education and Research            fooladi@iki.ac.ir

Fatemeh Hosseini / PhD Student of History, Islamic Azad University of Qom



Architectural symbols and signs are manifestations of a sense of belonging to a specific culture and society, and represent the identity of each nation. Moreover, the style of architecture in each society represents and manifests the religious beliefs and values ​​of its people. The architecture of the Ayasofya building in Istanbul's Sultan Ahmed Square is one of the great achievements of Byzantine history. The mosque was built when Christianity was accepted by the Constantinople I as the official religion throughout the Roman Empire. In this era, the Christian churches, in terms of organization and philosophy, were highly influenced by the structure of Greek-Roman life. When the building was a church, its walls showed beautiful symbols of Christianity, including the images of Jesus and Mary and some saints around him, but after the Ottomans entered the country, symbols of Christianity were replaced by Islamic symbols for 481 years by Muslims.  Considering the ancient history and the cultural and economic importance of this monument in the world of Islam and Christianity, this paper uses an analytical-descriptive method to study the civilization and architecture of this building in three stages before the conquest of Istanbul, after its conquest, and after the formation of the government of the Republic of Turkey. According to the type of government and ruling religion in every era, this monument has had the religious symbol of its time. This indicates the influence of the dominant religion on religious symbols and the culture of society.

Key words: Islam, Christianity, Ayasofya, civilizational monuments.

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