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The Status of Justice and Development in the Functions of Religious State

       Hassan Hajj Husseini

In the area of political thought, the duties and functions of the State are among the important discussions in political philosophy. All [thinkers] agree that preparing the ground for growth and development is one of the most important functions   of the State. This is realized once justice is diffused all over the society. In other words, development without social justice is meaningless; the final goal of development is providing felicity and happiness for all citizens. Felicity and transcendence are cultural and social issues, and religion can best give meaning to felicity; this is because religion offers plans for all dimensions of human existence, and this depends on realization of justice. This is realized just by an efficient and powerful government. The present article uses an analytical and theoretical approach to explain the status of justice and development in the functions of the religious State.

KEY WORDS: social justice, the function of the government, social rights, development, welfare, security.


The Functions of Islamic State vis-à-vis Social Beliefs and Culture in Alawi Teachings            Muhammad Reza Karimi Wala

Alawi teachings-as an all-out standard of divine knowledge – establish some functions for Islamic State in the realm of social beliefs and culture so that the attempts made by the agents of Islamic State to fulfill those functions may guarantee the favorite social life and promise a transcending and happy-seeking society. Alawi teachings here may be found among the following categories: revival of the transcendent and humane culture of Quran and diffusing the authentic revelational knowledge; continuous effort to improve the thoughts and ideas of the agents of political system and making use of those experts who are familiar with divine path; improving the social structure along with protecting national solidarity; struggling with those indulged in luxury; eradicating the spirit of arrogance and mammonism and removing non-righteous innovations; and reviving the true Islamic traditions.

The present article is seeking to investigate the abovementioned functions by adducing Imam Ali's way of life and his sayings so that it may present, in the light of these sayings, a clear-cut profile of the duties of Islamic State vis-à-vis the culture and beliefs of the society.

KEY WORDS: divine knowledge, Islamic culture and the culture of Ignorance [Period], Islamic State, national solidarity, those indulged in luxury, tradition, innovation      



Bahr al-'Ulum and the Shi'i Wilaya System            MuhammadAli Mirali

One of the most fundamental Islamic issues, which has always been scrutinized and examined from different viewpoints by shi'i jurists (= Fuqaha), is the Wilaya system of shi'a, because the "Umma (community) and Imamate”system is one of the central issues and doctrinal principles of shi'a. Although - for some reasons - in the course of shi'a history after the occultation period up to Islamic revolution, the jurists had never undertaken the leadership the Muslims’, the theoretical discussions on Wilaya theory _ though as an incidental subject - can be found in the works of early and later jurists. A study of legal theories of great jurists on this matter is important in that their viewpoints on various issues pertaining to Wilaya such as: the dominion, source of legitimacy, duties, and jurisdiction… of the jurist will be thus elucidated. In this article, the author seeks to explain Seyyed Muhammad l-i Bahr al-'Ulum’s views on the governance of the ruler and, with a reference to his book entitled Balagha al-Faghih, represent his view on the basic issue of the jurisdiction of the governance and leadership in the periods of Imam's presence and occultation.

Key words: Wilaya, the Prophet’s Wilaya, Imam and the jurist, the Scope of Wilaya, independent Wilaya, non-independent Wilaya.


Manifestation of Prophethood, Imamate and Jurist's Authority in Headmen of Farabi's Utopia            Muhammad Hussein Husseini

The Utopia, as the ideal state, has always been one of human's concerns. Farabi, among others, designed one such an ideal state and presented it to the human society; his design of Utopia seems to have been derived from principles of Shiite Ja'fari doctrine. An investigation of the management principles of Ja'fari doctrine in Farabi's Utopia has not been undertaken yet. The present article is seeking to fill this gap, as far as possible, by scrutinizing Farabi's political thoughts.

Farabi's Utopia refers to the same Utopia created under the Holy Prophet's management and competence. Thus, the main goal of Farabi's political philosophy is to acquire felicity through the Prophet's Religious Law, which is a ladder for human's transcendence and his going up to real felicity. The Prophet, as the head of the Utopia, is succeeded by the analogous headmen, the Imams, and the Authoritative Jurist would succeed the Imams, as the head of Sunnah. 

KEY WORDS: the prime headmen, the analogous headmen, the headmen of Sunnah, political philosophy, active intellect, the Legislator, felicity.




In Search of Divine Mercy (1)            Preffessor Muhammad Taqi Mesbah

In Islamic culture, modesty and embarrassment are authentic and valuable qualities, having their origins in human nature. In non-Islamic cultures, however, impudence and effrontery are considered as [signs of] perfection. Fear and hope are, on the   one hand, recognition and appreciation of the divine blessing of healthiness and other divine blessings, and on the other hand, recognition of the fact that God Almighty may forgive man's wrong doings if he repents, adding to his blessings. These two (fear and hope) make human being ready for repentance and receiving divine mercy.

It is natural for those stained with worldly desires to be prevented from spiritual affairs by these worldly pleasures, and to seek – based on their delusive opinion – the factors of glory and respect in the worldly blessings. But those who are insightful know well that the real glory is the dignity and honor before God, and enjoying spirituality. Therefore, human being is fallen by committing sins, and involved in dejection. Sins make him increasingly far from God, preventing him from repenting. Modesty and embarrassment before God's grandeur and majesty would, thus, prevent one from committing sins, attract divine blessings and mercy, and provide him with the opportunity for repenting.

KEY WORDS: Repentance, Recanting, Embarrassment, Modesty, fear and hope, Humility, Stages of Repentance.


The Epistemic Sources of Islamic Political Philosophy    Mahdi Omidi

Politics is a topic that can be investigated from various viewpoints. The empirica, philosophical and religious approaches each present one aspect of politics. The status of these approaches can be recognized and illustrated in different levels of rationality, based on the epistemic sources. Thus,“"empirical rationality", "philosophical rationality" and "transcendental or revealed rationality" present different perspectives of the politics. In addition to negating "irreligious wisdom" and "irrational religion", Islamic philosophers would try to present a preeminent outlook of basic political elements called Islamic political philosophy by bridging the gap between horizons of philosophical rationality and revealed rationality. Their effort to achieve this goal is a reflection of different interpretations of the concord between religion and philosophy. Four interpretations of the relationship between philosophy and religion are: "the essential unity of philosophy and religion",“"religion being more general than philosophy", "priority of reason to religion" and "unity of goals, variety of methods".

Key words: Philosophy, Religion, Reason, Revelation, Islamic Political Philosophy.