Translated by Seyyed Rahim Rastitabar

In Search of Infinite Divine Mercy

Professor Muhammad Taqi Mesbah

In religious teachings, fear and hope have always been concomitant and abreast. Fearing God's punishment, as a punitive mechanism, and hoping God's infinite mercy, as an encouraging mechanism, have always been driving man towards divine mercy and forgiveness.

In religious teachings, seeking good fate has always been stressed and encouraged in prayers and supplications. God's obedient and dutiful servants are always in a state of fear and hope, hoping divine forgiveness and His infinite mercy, seeking good fate in this world and the hereafter for themselves. Many of the prayers transmitted from the Imams stress the same thing. The present article states the ways to achieve infinite divine mercy.

KEYWORDS: mercy, forgiveness, good fate, penitence, fear and hope

Transcendental Theosophy and the Crises of the Modern Human

Habib Karkon Bayraq

The contemporary modern world is a very complicated and mysterious one. The 'modern human' is the result of centuries-long experiences, emerged in the form of modern human. Modern human is afflicted with many crises and predicaments; among them are the followings: identity crisis, environmental problems, moral problems, nihilism, etc. What is the way out? In the writers' view, all these problems and difficulties are resulted from human's separation from celestial and metaphysical existence, and the solution is in the hands of transcendental theosophy as one of the top metaphysical schools. Making use of this school, life would be meaningful, man would be free from considering life as null and meaningless, and other problems would be solved as the result.

KEYWORDS: modern human, technology, modernism, transcendental theosophy, soul, causality

A Survey of Psychological Thoughts of Aristotle, Avicenna, and Descartes

Abdullah Fathi

The discussions of philosophical psychology enjoy a special status among philosophical discussions, and their importance is generally accepted due to their implications in other philosophical and doctrinal disciplines. On the other hand, among the philosophers, we may name some who have virtually been pioneers of psychological discussions.

The present article uses an analytical and documentary approach with a careful survey of viewpoints presented by three of the most important philosophers in history, i.e. Aristotle, Avicenna, and Descartes; in this way, it investigates some of the most fundamental discussions of psychology.

KEYWORDS: soul, prime perfection, natural body, organic body, matter, form, essence, active intellect, passive intellect

Steamy Spirit in the Question of Soul and Body in Mulla Sadra's View

Hadi Musavi

The discussion of Soul and body in Mulla Sadra's philosophy is considerably explained in view of his principles and arguments. In Mulla Sadra's phrases, 'steamy spirit' is much used – as a popular scientific theory in the past – to explain the relationship between soul and body. The existence of steamy spirit cannot be inferred from Mulla Sadra's principles; rather, he uses it in his non-argumentative explanations on the relationship between soul and body. This is because steamy spirit cannot be proved as an independent existence other than an stage of the soul, using the existing evidences including the theory of the soul's being 'corporeally contingent' and 'spiritually eternal' as well as 'intense substantial motion'. Removing this idea would not cause any impairment in Mulla Sadra's principles. Therefore, the application of steamy spirit as a scientific theory plays no role except for determining the instances in explaining the question of soul and body. This determination of instances is such that removing it would cause no defect to the theory itself.

KEYWORDS: steamy spirit, the question of soul and body, Mulla Sadra, physics, corporeal contingency, spiritual eternality

Simplicity of Necessary Being in Avicenna's Philosophy

Murteza Rezaie

Simplicity of the essence of necessary being, referred to as such in philosophy and called 'absolute unity' in theology, is among important discussions in theology per se. the present article claims a negation of composition in divine essence, especially its being composed of external elements including quantitative elements as well as matter and form, and elements of limitation. This is proved by explaining Avicenna's arguments.

The research method in the present study is descriptive based on Avicenna's works and sometimes those of his expositors. Avicenna puts forward three reasons to prove his claim. In one of them, he negates external elements, and in the two others, the elements of limitation and essence in necessary being are negated; thus, various types of compositions are negated through this negation.

KEYWORDS: types of composition, simplicity, simplicity of essence, external elements, quantitative elements, elements of limitation

Imagery in Ibn Arabi's View

Nafisa Ahl Sarmadi

The world of archetypal images (mithals) is a spiritual world composed of luminous substances. These substances are, on the one hand, similar to physical substances, and on the other hand, to abstract beings. Therefore, it is called the world of spiritualization of bodies and materialization of spirits. Human is able to contact this stage of existence with his faculty of imagination.

The term khiyal ('image') is used in a variety of senses in Ibn Arabi's works, among which are the followings: all other than God, the status of Unity, the status of Uniqueness, a intermediary world between matters and abstractions, and the special perceptive faculty existing in human. The present paper uses an analytical approach to seek a comprehensive meaning among all these different meanings, succeeding in that by finding the key word tajalli ('manifestation').

KEYWORDS: imagination, world of archetypal images, Chaos, imagination, Purgatory, the arch of descent and ascension

Using Philosophy for Knowing God and Deepening Religious Knowledge

Ahmad Muhammadi

Using rational and philosophical thinking plays a unique and determining role in proving God's existence and understanding the most basic religious knowledge. Recognizing the basic part of religion, such as proving the existence of Almighty God and the necessity of prophethood and religion's inclusion of pieces of knowledge necessary for human's achieving felicity and perfection are among subjects available to the reason per se; all of them are provable just by reason. Therefore, rational and philosophical recognition are the only support for the most fundamental religious knowledge. Thus, without rational and philosophical reasoning, the main part of religion is deprived of intellectual defense. For this reason, the Holy Quran invites people to thinking and reasoning; this would also support basing religious knowledge on rational and philosophical reasoning. Accordingly, the separatist claim that 'recognizing religious knowledge is based on human nature and needless of rational and philosophical reasoning' is a baseless and wrong claim that cannot be proved.

KEYWORDS: philosophical reasoning, extra-religious propositions, intra-religious propositions, separatism, knowledge

Various Types of Notions and their Features

Gholam Reza Ibrahimi

In Islamic philosophy, various degrees of notions, based on the degree of abstractness from matter and its accidents or based on enjoying existential expansion, are divided into four stages: sensuous, imaginary, fictional, rational. The common feature of the three first stages is their being specific, and the feature of the fourth stage is its being general.

Whenever we speak of 'knowledge', its primary assertion and its main pillar, i.e. decree (hukm) come to mind. However, upon contemplation, we will find that assertion itself is dependent on notions or concepts. Concepts are partly responsible for creation of knowledge; however, no concept implies a decree as to the affirmation or negation. Concepts just show their own strength and do not judge on the existence or nonexistence of their instances.

The present article uses an analytical and theoretical approach, aiming at identifying various types of concepts and presenting a vivid and distinctive picture for each.

KEYWORDS: concept, notion, perception, specific notion, general notion, rational notion, sensuous notion, fictional notion, imaginary notion

Truth from Pragmatic Viewpoint based on William James' Ideas

Sayyid Muhammad Hadi Musavi Rukni/ Hussein Zareie Samangan

In the late 19th century, to end the conflict between empiricists and rationalists, a thought called 'pragmatism' emerged using both schools (empiricism and rationalism) and based on practical presence of philosophy in life and its direct and mutual influence on worldly life. Among the great men of this line of thought, pragmatism owes much to William James. James wanted to direct truth and knowledge towards practical utility, thereby bringing reconciliation to the realm of experience and abstraction; and he was verily successful in this regard. He attempted to use 'practical utility' as a criterion for truthfulness or falsity of propositions, bringing knowledge to the sphere of action and experience. Of course, he accepted not all facts are certain for all. The present article uses a theoretical approach in seeking certainty for this matter.

KEYWORDS: truthfulness and falsity, pragmatism, utility, truth, William James

Perceptions in Hume's View

Hamid Reza Varkeshi

David Hume is one of the most prominent empiricist western philosophers, who regarded perceptions as dividable into dispositions and imaginations, considering sensuous experience as the main source of acquiring reliable knowledge. Hume's view in this regard is the point of gravity of his theory on knowledge, which is especially effective in other philosophical teachings presented by him; it is similar to his opinion on causality, which has led to his fame in philosophy. Similarly, his views on corporeal substance, soul, general concepts, and metaphysics are all based on this theory. Hume's views and thoughts have had a dramatic effect on philosophy and epistemology in the west. The present article uses a theoretical approach to put forward his view and his opinions affected by this view, dealing with a review and investigation of him as the final point.

KEYWORDS: Hume, perceptions, dispositions, imaginations, substance, soul, causality