ABSTRACTS

The Sick Heart and Means of Treatment

Professor Muhammad Taqi Misbah

In his "Supplication of Complainers", Imam Sajjad complains to God of a defective heart which
suffers from cruelty. The word heart is used here to mean spirit or human soul. When the focus
of heart is on Divine nature, it remains pure; but when rusted it gets sick. Among the main
factors of mans hard- heartedness are committing sins, pursuing desires and inclinations, Satans
whispering, heart rustiness and having a sealed heart. Tenderness of heart, feeling of fear,
submission to heart tranquility and affection are signs of the purity of heart. Those who want to
repent and return to the right path and refine their souls and clean off the rust from the heart
should not sin and they are in need of Gods aid.

Key words: heart, pure heart, sick heart, sin, heart rustiness.

The Principle of Enjoining Good and Forbidding Evil and Civic Rights

AhmadRida Basij

Civic rights are among the rights which have been decreed by God, and because they have natural
basis, they are fixed and subject to no changes of time, place, or tastes, fancies and doubtful
thoughts, which follows that man can, by nature, enjoy all his natural rights. On the other hand,
human social life has some conditions and observing it is a logical necessity and natural and
rational basis for achiving the hoped - for goal of any society.

The authors aim is to show that the principle of enjoining good and forbidding evil is one
of the civic rights and natural needs and that it has an essential role in straightening out the
society and overcoming the hardships. It is also the best means of attaining both individual and
social welfare and the first-class facility for safeguarding civic rights. In addition to its loftiness,
this principle has an external sense, and can be achieved if it is given due attention. The
violations of social norms which we see today is an outcome of not institutionalizing the principle
of enjoining good and forbidding evil, an act which is inconsistent with the civic rights.

Key words: enjoining good and forbidding evil, civic rights, social system, social laws, social
observation.

A Study of the Factors that Affect Social Confidence (an adhoc study on the
people of Babul)Seyyed Ali Asghar Husayni

The present study is concerned with the degree of social confidence among the people of Babul
and the factors that affect it. Social confidence, the origin of developing social relations, the development of a society and its growth or decrease have a great effect on the different structures
of society and peoples social relations. This issue has been of special interest to a large number
of sociologists in the last decades.

This study seeks to answer these questions: what is the degree of social confidence among the
people of Babul? Do they have high social confidence or is their social confidence low?

For analysing the data, the researcher has drawn upon descriptive intersecting tables and
statistical tests like kandal, Sperman, Whitney. The results show that the degree of social
confidence among the people is not high, and that social confidence has significant relationship
with age, education and income.

Key words: social confidence, confidence, confidence culture, education, age.

Going into Mourning for Imam Husayn (a.): Its Role in Safeguarding Islam

Muhammadqadir Danish

Going into mourning for Imam Husayn plays an important role in safeguarding Islam, and for
this purpose the leaders of Islam mourn the martyrdom of Imam Husayn (a.). The present essay
introduces a sociological analysis of the effects of going into mourning for the martyrdom of
Imam Husayn (a.).

Social correlation, introducing good examples, creating spirtual atmosphere, organizing
religious - cultural centres, and peoples growing religious zeal resulting from the mourning
sessions and gathernings contribute to the solidarity of religious society. This kind of gatherings
and sessions through which religious knowledge is spread, can safeguard Islamic culture and make
it known to later generations. Also, during this ceremony, religious values - like declaring enmity
to the enemies of Imam Husayn and loyalty to the frinds of Imam Husayn are revived and the
notion of jihad (straggle in the cause of Islam) and yearning for martyradom is disseminated. All
this guaranees the sustainablity of Islam.

Key words: the outcome of going into mourning for Imam Husayn, safeguarding Islam, creating a
powerful society, continuity of Islamic culture, reviving Islamic values.

Palm Trees and Muharam Ceremonies in Yazd

Mahdiyah Jamshidi Guharrizi

The ceremonies held in the month of Muharram is among the most widespreed, most exciting and
most popular rituals in the Iranian culture. It is, therefore, one of the factors of strengthing
religious and national solidarity in Iran, and culture correlation between the countries of the
region. These ceremonies are similar in content but they differ in form in the different places and cultures, and it is their form that attracts the attention.

So, the acquaintance with the hidden values in the Ashura ceremonies and its lofty cultural
status, has special significance. In Yazd, people perform symbolic funerary rites every year to
mourn for the martyres of Ashura, which is Known "Nakhl Gardani". In Iran Muharam
ceremonies are, perhaps, more widespread and more prevalent than any other type of ceremonies.
People associate the word "nakhl" (meaning palm- tree) to Muharram "ceremonies, and this tree
is grown in most parts of Iran and it is known by the people who live in the areas that do not
have palm-trees.

This research sheds light on the "nakhl ceremonies" held in Muharram and touches on the
oblational acts and values of these ceremonies, focusing on their cultural and sociological effects.

Key words: palm-tree, decoration with parts of palm trees, social solidarity, social prestige,
oblational act.

A Contrastive Study of the Classification of Knowledge in Islamic Civilization

Aiyub Akrami

With the gradual development of the grounds of Islamic civilization, the division of science into
various disciplines and the classification of branches of knowledge according to their criterion was
pursued as one of the fundamental scientific need in the Islamic world. In the Middle Ages there
was a traditional specialized type of classification and the perspective of each branch of
knowledge and its relationship with other branches became evident, and it is in this way that
intellectual and cultural needs of Islamic world were satisfied. Providing an overview of the main
kinds of classification and comparing between them, the author points out to the factors and
grounds of the various kinds of classification, their strenghts and weeknesses and their course of
development. The criteria of classification, such as theosophical and non - theosophical
knowledge, intellectual and shari knowledge, practical and theoretical arts, Arabic or non -
Arabic identity of knowlege, etc have been the subject of speculation in this essay.

Key words: classification of knowledge, criteria of classification inetellectual knowledge, shari
knowledge, Islamic civilization.

The Pioneers of Islamic Awakening Movement in Egypt

Nasrullah Aqajani

The recent decades witnessed a revival of Islam in various political and social aspects, and this
revival is often referred to as the "Islamic Awakening Movement". The first front of Islamic
awakening of the Sunni Muslims was led by well known figures like Seyyed Jamal, Muhammaad Abdah, Rashid Rida, and by Ikhwan al- Muslimin. Religion and politices, in their view -
particularly Seyyed Jamal and Ikhawan al- Mulsim - are intermingled and cannot be separated.
The pioneers of Islamic awakening movement think that the materialistic civilization of the west
along with the western colonial nature are like a coin with two sides, and so they warned Muslims
from being fascinated by the attractiveness of technology and from being affected by effected by
the materialistic civilization. Muhammad Abdahs view on this issue is not the same as that of his
master - Seyyed Jamal, or that of Ikhwan al - Muslim. the Islamic awakening movement has a very
long history and it has had blights over the ages. Therefore, Muslims should enjeyspecial firmness
and alertness.

Key words: Egypt, Islamic Awakening, Islam, modernity, the West, Seyyed Jamal al- Din
Asaabadi, Sheikh Muhammad Abdah, Rashid Rida, Seyyed Qotb.

Theoretical Perspectives on Islam and Communication

Seyyed Hamid Mowlana translator: Muhammad Husayn Burjian

In his reflection on the Islamic concepts of government and communication, the author focuses
on the process of tabligh (distribution of knowledge) as the main feature of social communication
in Islam. He mentions five fundamental Islamic principles and considers them as the concepts
that determine the ethical framework of tabligh in Islam. They include among other the concepts
tawhid (unity of God), the concept of ilm (knowledge), the meaning of taqwa (fear of God), the
process of adl (justice), the notion of ijma (consensus), shura (consulation), the doctrine of
amanat (public interest) and the ummat (the large Islamic community).

International and cultural communication are among the essential characteristics of Islamic
community. In Islam, tabligh is a theory of communication and ethics. In order to be familiar with
this theory, it is necessary to touch on five important principles in Islam: tawhid as a theory which
implies the unity, coherence, and harmony betwen all parts of the universe; commanding to the
right and prohibiting from the wrong as a doctorine of responsibility, guidance and action;
ummah or community - a concept which transcends national borders and political boundaries;
taqwa which explains the ethical framework of journalism in Islam; and Amanat which refers to
Divine Vicegerency for which human beings alone are fit and none alse can share this honour
with them.

Key words: propagation, unity of God, commanding to the right and prohibiting from the wrong,
piety, community, obligatory duties.