ABSTRACTS

 

ABSTRACTS

 

A believer's Longing, Benevolence and Happiness-seeking Attitude

By Ayatollāh Muhammad Taqi Misbāh

The present article is concerned with explaining Imam Sajjād's whispered pray of the hopers. A desire or need is among the things which cannot be easily accomplished; therefore, one has to work as hard as one can in order to accomplish it."Hope" means wanting things and requires taking preliminary steps. Though a drawn-out expectation in itself is not blameworthy and as inferred from Imam Sajjād's words that hoping for spiritual matters is something good, drawn-out expectations for worldly matters is blameworthy and undesirable.

What is worth considering is that when a servant stands before God and asks from Him all sorts of worldly and hereafter favors, drawn-out expectations for what is with God is not unbecoming. It is not desirable to ask trivial things from Him.

This article elaborates on appropriate means of attaining one's desires, what one "ought" to desire and what one "ought not" to desire.

Key words: hope, desire, demand, the realm of hope, desires for what in the hereafter, worldly desires.

 

 

Possibility and Nature of Revelation

By Yadullāh Dādju

One of the important issues about the phenomenon of revelation is whether or not it is possible, because man's ability to establish relationship with the Creator of the universe enables him to live an agreeable eternal life. Throughout history, some thinkers reject the idea of revelation. Their rejection is ascribed to various reasons. Some thinkers who reject the possibility of revelation conclude that how can a man with his limited capacities establish relationship with the Creator of the universe as an infinite being. Such relationship is entirely impossible, because if it was possible, then, why have the Prophets as prominent revelation-receivers been rejected at all ages throughout human history.

This essay uses an analytical method based on intellectual reasoning and transmitted knowledge and combines between inward religious study and outward religious study with the aim of reviewing the doubts raised about the possibility and significance of revelation. It is established that accepting the

Key words: revelation, possibility, holy faculty, active intellect, the occurrence of revelation, essential impossibility.

 

 

The Difference between Revelation and Religious Experience

By Ahmmad Riḍa Baseej

A number of western theologians maintain that revelation is not a set of facts about God, and that the Holy Scriptures represent an outcome of man's efforts to realize the meaning and significance of revelatory occurrences which come out in a form of human experience. Accordingly, revelation and religious experience is viewed identical from the phenomenological aspect of religious experience.

The author seeks to shed light on the meaning of revelation and religious experience and present some of the theories proposed about each of them to draw a distinction between revelation and religions experience. Making use of the references in the library, this research reviews some of theories related to this subject and then comments on them.

The result of this research show that, by considering the twenty major differences between revelation and religions experience, it is made known that the source of revelation is evident to those who receive revelation (i.e. the Prophets), which entails that when the Prophets receive a heavenly message, they are liable to no mistake or bewilderment. The Qur'anic revelation is complete and perfect in all aspects and no religions experience or Gnostic intuition can match with it.

Key words: revelation, religious experience, propositional meaning of revelation, non-propositional meaning of revelation.

 

 

How the Essence of the Divine Have Perfect Attributes

by Mahdi Torāb-pur

The holy Qur'an has confirmed God's attributes and the Qur'anic verses which represent the referece for explaining how to ascribe attributes to the Essence of the Divine, what evidence can be given for the fact that they are ascribed to God and whether or not these attributes have reality and whether they are mere names' even though the Essence of the Divine does enjoy their effects.

The article is intended to discuss the subject of the attributes of the Divine in a systematic and logical way from an ontological angle. This article, in fact, seeks to explore how God has perfect attributes and to examine whether or not they are finite on the basis of the rule " Necessary Being in Essence is Necessary Being in all aspects" and secondary items derived from this rule. The mistakes which are made in the way of ascribing attributes to the Essence of the Divine is also discussed.

Key words: eternal necessity, Being in Itself, simplicity, real unity, essence, Oneness.

 

 

Destiny

By Husein Qāsemi

Destiny is one of the serious ideological problems among individuals and it reminds in a seemingly nice way of determinism and dispossession of free will. In spite of the fact that to believe that everything is in the hand of God, though this is taken to be an orthodox belief, common people, due to misinterpretation, think that man do not have any role in determining his destiny. Thorough a sound analysis and giving a correct meaning of destiny, this article tries to shed light on this question and clarify the relation between God's will and man's free choice.

A study of religious texts and relying on intellectual reasoning and analytical examination shows that man's destiny is dependent on his own deeds and the thing which is predestined by God is what man chooses.

Therefore, the right meaning of destiny is not that everything is delegated to man and that God has nothing to do in this concern, and its precise meaning is that everyone is granted blessing by God, but it is man who changes what he has been endowed with and so increases or decreases things.

Key words: destiny, pre-destination, determinism, free will, fate

 

 

A Study about Apostasy

By Hamid Riḍa Tayibi-nasab

This essay, which is concerned with apostasy in religions, especially in Islam, makes use of religious texts and researchers' inferences and relies on intellectual and transmitted knowledge. Apostasy is a jurisprudential(fiqhi)-theological precept which includes those who proclaim apostasy and dissociation from faith with the aim of undermining religious principles.

The main finding of this research is depicting the rationality of the judgment about apostasy from the jurisprudential (fiqhi) and doctrinal viewpoint, meanwhile emphasis is laid on the necessity of complying with religious regulations, executing Islamic injunctions, freedom of thought and respect for human dignity.

The author maintains that the audience has the right to ask or criticize within the framework of regulations and the audience's questions should be answered. Undermining religions principles or talking mockingly about them does not come within the framework of religious regulations and is irrational.

Key words: apostasy, creed, Islam, religions, logic

 

 

The Imam's Justice in the View of Imam Riḍa (a.s.) with Emphasis on Social Justice

By HasanSadiqi

One of the characteristics of an infallible Imam is justice, particularly social justice, and this is quite natural because if he does not enjoy this characteristic he cannot carry out his duties. The present essay, which uses an analytical documentary approach and relies on accounts (riwāyāt) narrated from Imam Riḍa (a.s.), sheds light on the significance, way of discovering and effects and aspects of an Imam's justice with special emphasis on social justice. The difference between this view and the non-Shi‘ah’s theological view is exhibited, as well. Imam Riḍa's sayings are given special attention here because in his lifetime there had been much debate about the essential questions in Islam. Also he had the position of Crown-princeship for a time. These two factors pave the way for discussing the Imam's social justice.

Key words: Imam, imamate, social justice, infallibility, Imam Riḍa (a.s.)

 

 

A Brief Study of Idolatry in the Arabian Peninsula before Islam

By Seyyed Akbar Huseini Qal‘ahbahman

Before the Prophet Muhammad, the chosen, had his mission, most people in Hijaz took idols as their object of worship. The article introduces, through an analytical approach and reviewing the documents, a brief account about idolatry in the Arabian Peninsula and an image of the way idol-worshipers followed to get to the Ultimate Reality in their worship of idols. We can infer from the result of this study that they were governed by accidental polytheism. Also, the form of their polytheism is said to be of two kinds: "polytheism in ontological lordship" and "polytheism in divinity". In other words, polytheists think that idols and spirits beyond idols play a role in designing part of the universe on the one hand and such things have been thought to be worth worshipping on the other.

Key words: polytheism, accidental polytheism, monotheism in divinity, monotheism in ontological lordship, statue, idol, stones.

 

 

God in the View of Ibn Maymūn(Maimonides) and Seyyed Ahmad Alawi:

By Muhammad Husein Ṭāhiri

The question of God and His attributes is one of central subjects of religions. using an analytical approach based on library resources and documents this article, seeks to investigate the view of two eminent thinkers who believe in Ibrahim's faith about God, and it shows the similarities and differences between the view adopted by each.

The investigation indicates that Ibn Maymūn advocates negative theology whereas Seyyed Ahmad Alawi is in favour of positive theology. The article presents a comparison between the views of these two thinkers on the basis of a study of their books.

Key words: Ibn Maymoon (Maimonides), Seyyed Ahmad Alawi, negative theology, positive theology, Dalil al-Hā'irin, Masqal Safā darTajliyaya Āyeneye Haqnomā.

 

 

The Divine Law in Christianity

By Seyyed Ali Hāshimi

The Divine Law, in the sense of religious practices, has an important status in religions. We can infer from the Bible two sorts of theology and thus two sorts of views about the Divine Law: the first sees that Christ's emphasis and main concern is to reform the Mosaic Law, not to abrogate it. The Law of Jesus or what we may call it the new Law, is founded on the Mosaic Law, not on principles completely different from it. This view is more harmonious with the Islamic teachings.

Contrary to the first view, the second view maintains that an essential change has taken place in the Mosaic Law and theology, because with the coming of Christ and his sacrifice for man's original sin the old Law has been replaced by a new Law which is known as the Law of faith and it is significantly different from Mosaic Law.

The present article, which uses a theoretical and analytical approach with the aim of reviewing the Divine Law in Christianity, sees that although Saint Paul's words about the Law of faith indicate an absolute negation of the Law of "actions", a new Law has begun to substitute the Law of Moses with minimal application. It seems that the new Law will face serious challenges.

Key words: The (divine) Law, Christianity, the Mosaic Law, the Law of Faith, the abrogation of the Law

 

 

A Critical Study of Various Aspects of the Meaning of life from the Third Person Point of View

By: Muhammad Riḍa Rahmani Aṣl

The present article seeks to study various aspects of the meaning of life of a “person”. Basing its analysis on the “ third person” point of view, this stud tries to have an all-embracing view of the meaning of life, for man’s meaning of life can be obtained only through familiarity with the mental and spiritual aspects of man’s life as well as the circumstances under which he or she lives. It can even be said that this cannot be achieved but through gaining knowledge of all the constituents of existence. By pondering the nature of God, man, as His creature, and existence, one can deepen his insight into man’s status in the universe whereby one can arrive at a more precice interpretation of the meaning of man’s life.

Taking an analytical and theoretical approach to the subject in question, the article aims at defining and elucidating the meaning of life in order to assist the reader , as an analyst, to find his or her own meaning of life. The article also seeks to shed light on the fact that to come to know man’s status can have an impact on the meaningfulness of life and that to what extent religion and morality exerts their effects on making man’s life meaningful.

Key words: The meaning of life, the purpose of life, vanity, God, universe, man