Thanksgiving; a Natural Response to the God-given Blessings

Ayatollah Mohammad Taqi Misbah


The present paper discusses the necessity of thanksgiving for the boundless divine blessings. A believer should always be grateful for divine blessings. Just as we give a smile of satisfaction to those who bring us a present or do us good, so we should be grateful for the boundless free divine blessings.

  Thanksgiving is done by tongue, parts of body, heart, or through worshiping and servitude to God, showing satisfaction, and performing religious duties. Reciting the prescribed supplications strengthens the sense of thanksgiving.

Key words: supplication, thanksgiving, divine blessings.

'Ashura Uprising from the Supreme Leader's Viewpoint and Its Morals

Marziyeh Morowwati, Akbar Ejraii


The present paper tries to study the lessons we learn from 'Ashura Uprising in the light of the Supreme Leader's words. The Supreme Leader of Islamic Republic declares that Imam Hussein (peace be upon him) has taught valuable lessons to humanity throughout history. In fact, he has preserved Islam not only in his time but in the ages to come and forever. Commemorating Karbala highlights morals, for example wherever there is corruption Imam Hussein is alive and his words and actions tell what our duty is and what we should do. The everlasting 'Ashura Uprising showed that Islamic system is founded, guaranteed, and makes progress through faith, insight, high aspirations, pursuing ideals and reviving slogans. As an Islamic society our present society is in urgent of need the morals of 'Ashura. In attention to the principles of Islam and the Revolution, undermining the slogans, and viewing all things by material standards can bring serious harm to the society.

Key words: 'Ashura Uprising, Imam Hussein (peace be upon him), the Supreme Leader, aims, morals, lessons.

Economic Jihad (Holy War) according to the Moral Teachings of the Development in Islam

Salman Ali Rahimi


Economic development is the aim of development, which all societies and nations consider as their ultimate aim. Nominating the present year as "the Year of Economic Jihad" indicates that economic development is considered as a fundamental necessity in Iran. Among the issues discussed in economic development is the role of religion and its moral teachings in the economic and social developments in any society. The moral teachings of a religion and an ideological school (madhab) can play a completely positive or negative role in the economic development and growth of the society depending on their teachings and positions. Regarding the religion of Islam, some sociologists hold that the moral teachings of Islam lack the features that can create in its followers an active rational and religious motivation.  Given the aforementioned issue, the present paper seeks to define the features of Islamic moral standards and explore the kind of socio-economic effects which they have.

Key words: religion, economy, economic Jihad, Islamic moral standards, rationality

The Cultural Method Used by Muslims in the Struggle against Seditious Groups in the View of Nahjul-Balaghah

Ali Riza Tayyebi, Ghodratullah Hassani


Sedition is one the problems which may challenge Islamic society. Islamic societies are more possibly entangled in seditious activities because the conditions are particular suitable for maintaining such activities in a religious society.  Of course, the discussion is centered on the political concept of sedition which erupts in order to overthrow Islamic political systems. This paper discusses the cultural method used by Muslims to confront mutineers in the view point of Nahjul-Balaghah. The main aim of this discussion is to offer the most effective and efficient method which Muslims use against seditious groups. Therefore, a society that enjoys cultural wealth is less vulnerable to damage.

The data have been gathered from library resources and a descriptive-analytical method is used in this research.

Key words: Imam Ali (peace be upon him), Nahjul-Balaghah, sedition, culture, conspiracy, confrontation.


Islamizing Human Sciences; Pathology

Abulfazl Sajedi


The present paper studies the pathology of the process of Islamizing human sciences in Iran. For Islamizing human sciences, which investigate man's human characteristics, especial mechanisms for in research and educational structures, staff and scientific products are needed, and these three have some deficiencies. Functionalism instead of truth-orientation, explication–orientation instead of argument–orientation, and application–orientation instead of scienticism are among the examples of content damages in the process of Islamizing human sciences. Local scholars have been confronted with some problems due to the lack of using proper methods in this process. The data have been gathered from library resources and an analytical method is used in this research.

Key words: human sciences, Islamization, pathology, methodology, producing science, structurology, the basic principles of Islamic human sciences.

The Criteria of Islamic University in the View of the Professors of Islamic Sciences

Seyfullah Fazlullahi Qomashi, Sooda Islamifar


The present paper aims at recognizing the criteria of Islamic University in the view of the professors of Islamic sciences. The research method is descriptive – survey and the statistical population include the professors of Islamic sciences who were permitted to teach in the first semester of 2010-2011 by the chancellery of professor affairs of the Supreme Leader's Deputy Institution in Qom Azad Islamic University. All of these professors (amounting to 40) have been selected as an statistical sample. To gather data a researcher –made questionnaire has been used which includes 18 criteria in ranking order scale with reliability of %87. In addition to descriptive statistics, the inferential statistics at the level of z-test to compare a mean with a fixed number has been used to analyze the data. The research findings show that: 1. 17 criteria have the score of z-test at critical z at confidence level of 0.99 and

=0.01 and were confirmed; 2. the mean of all criteria were larger than the expected medium limit; 3. from the viewpoints of the professors of Islamic sciences, the following criteria were respectively the most important and prior ones:  observing the Islamic Hijab (veil) in the university, institutionalization of Islamic values among students and professors, having committed and expert professors who are familiar with religious principles, having managers committed to religious principles, having textbooks based on the Islamic sciences, and having regulations based on Islamic culture.

Key words: criteria, Islamic university, professors of Islamic sciences, Azad Islamic University


Content Analysis of the Religious Propositions about the Central Aspects of Theories of Deviance (Victimization)

'Abdul Hadi Salehizade


The new findings of deviance studies justify the role played by the victim of crime in creating and controlling deviance. The behavior of a victim of crime, his/her interaction with others and life style , and other micro, medium term, and macro variables related to it have positive or negative effects in creating the motive for deviance and victimization or prepare the grounds and opportunities for their occurrence.

The present paper seeks through the brief victimological explanations and analysis of micro, medium term, and macro dimensions of the role which victims of crime play in the occurrence of deviance and victimization, to investigate the Qur'anic viewpoints and traditions which are related from the prophet's Household in this regard.  Offering content analysis of the Quranic verses and traditions and showing special observations on religious propositions about micro, medium term, and macro variables influencing victimization of individuals, this paper seeks to provide a religious approach to deviations from victimological viewpoint.  The research findings show that Islamic texts use the victimological approach, as an influential perspective to clarifying deviance and victimization.

Key words: deviance, crime victim, victimology, micro explanations, medium term, macro, the chance to commit the crime.

The Reflection of the Islamic Republic's Approaches to Foreign Policy on Awakening Muslim Nations

Mokhtar Sheikh Husseini


According to the Glorious Quran, the history of humanity has always been a scene of struggle between truth and falsehood, and whenever falsehood dominated for a time, the grounds for the change were prepared which led to the victory of front of truth. The victory of the Islamic Revolution of Iran represents a fulfillment of one of the Quranic promises. The Muslims' ongoing awakening of in Islamic countries can be examined on the basis of Quranic verses and the reflections of the Islamic Revolution.

The research focuses on studying the kind of the relations between the foreign policy orientations of countries and the awakening of Muslims in these countries, using a descriptive –analytical method and documentary resources.

The aim of this research is to call the attention to the significant role which doctrinal variables have in Islamic awakening when contrasted with other social and external factors. The innovative feature of this research is that it studies the course of Islamic foreign policy from the time of the Holy Prophet's state in Medina until the success of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the impact of this policy on the recent Islamic awakening.

Key words: foreign policy, Islamic awakening, the Islamic Revolution, structure – agent, Medina state.

Religious Perspective and Cultural Intelligence ( the Case in Question: Sanandaj)

Ya'qoob Ahmadi


Cultural intelligence refers to one's ability to conform oneself to different values, traditions, and customs. Given the fact that Iranians and also the urban society of the city of Sanandaj are diverse and multi- cultural societies, the main aim of this paper is to measure the cultural intelligence condition and its determinants. Since religion and religious mind are regarded as the most important components in shaping the individuals' way of thinking, they are investigated as the main components influencing the cultural intelligence.

The method used in this research is descriptive–correlative. It is a survey study in terms of controlling research conditions, an extensive one in terms of scope, and a cross-sectional one in terms of time. The statistical population are citizens of different parts of Sanandaj aged 15 or more. The sampling method is a multi-stage clustering and the sample scale is 340 individuals.

The descriptive findings of the research indicate that the level of cultural intelligence of the citizens in the cultural intelligence index and its four–fold dimensions is medium and above. This indicates that the level of cultural intelligence is satisfactory. Furthermore, the analytical findings indicate a significant and, of course, inverse relationship between the religious mind on one hand and cultural intelligence index and three of its four dimensions on the other.

Key words: cultural intelligence, religious mind, cultural diversity, motivation, meta-cognition, value, multi- cultural.


An Inquiry into the Influence of Training Workshops on the Level of Teachers', competence by Using Causal- Comparative (Expost Facto) Test

Seyyed Ali Asghar Husseini Nozari


One of the issues which has been of special interest to theorists and researchers of education is the evaluation of teachers' competence and performance, and the influence of in-service training on them. The present paper does a survey in Behshahr to investigate this question. So, an experiment group (including teachers who previously participated in all training workshops which lasted two years) and a control group (including teachers who have not participated in these workshops) were used in this survey.

The research findings show that there is no difference between these two groups and all the research suppositions have been rejected, that is, no distinction between the two groups is detected in terms of proficiency and its three aspects (i.e. methods of teaching, evaluation, and checking students' activities).

Key words: teachers' competence, training workshop, teaching method, evaluation of students' work, causal- comparative (expost facto) experiment.

Criticism and Analysis of the Theory of Symbolic Interaction

Mohammad Riza Anwari

Expounding the views and theories of two sociologists, George Herbert Mead and Herbert Blumer, who have made a major contribution to the theory of symbolic interaction, the present paper tries to identify the relationship of the theory with communications. Furthermore, given the principles governing the theory, the article tries to criticize and analyze this theory it by extracting its ontological, anthropological, and epistemological foundations. Briefly speaking the Theory of Symbolic Interaction is a micro theory and does not provide any macro interpretation of the society, because society, state, and social institutions are considered by this theory as abstract and subjective concepts. To the contrary, its main emphasis is on individuals and their interactions with each other. So, we can say that this theory can fall in the province of communication between individuals.

Key words: symbolic interaction, interaction, social act, Mead, symbol.