Different Stages of “Nearness to God” and Exemplars of God-Seekers

Ayatollah 'Allamah Mohammad Taqi Misbah


The present article deals with the main ideas of one of professor 'Allamah Misbah's moral lectures and contains a commentary on Imam Sajjad's Munajatal Muridin (whispered conversation of the devotee). The final part of this supplication defines nearness to God and divine good pleasure as man's ultimate aim which is higher and worthier than achieving worldly happiness and the felicity in the hereafter. Nearness to God a high aim which has two levels: a lower level which contributes to enjoying the privileges associated to nearness to God and in this stage man enjoys the blessings in Paradise; and a higher level in which man’s aim is attaining divine good pleasure; a state in which a servant’s fanatical devotion reaches its utmost through his or her union with his or her object of worship. In this stage, nothing is more important for a servant who attains such a union than being brought neigh to his or her object of worship and enjoying God’s good pleasure.

Key words: nearness to God, good pleasure (paradise), whispered conversation, stages of nearness.



The Presuppositions of Science according to Positivism and to Mullāh Ṣadrā

Mohammad Tale'i Ardakani


The presuppositions of science have influence both on its deep structure and surface structure. Accordingly, different presuppositions contribute to the production of sciences which differ in terms of form and content. Since presuppositions have a logical relationship with the issues which are in the depth of knowledge, the change in the essential content of science leads to a change in its presuppositions and this change does not remain only in the exterior aspect and form of science. A studying of the presuppositions of science will enable us to integrate ontological and epistemological principles of a science with their issues and theories, and criticize them methodologically in case there is disharmony between them. According to positivism, mind is a white tablet, experience is the initial stage of induction and regularity of nature is the presupposition. Also, positivism rejects any kind of axiom and considers the method as a criterion for the separation between various disciplines. As for Mullāh Ṣadrā, he believes that sense is necessary in the process of natural science but it is not a sufficient condition. He considers experience as a kind of demonstration (burhān), establishes experience by the principle of causality and puts more emphasis on the subject matter in the separation between various disciplines.

Key words: science, knowledge, presupposition, Mullāh Ṣadrā, positivism.



An Inquiry into the Response of Transcendent Philosophy to the Erroneous Nation of "the Relationship between the Foreknowledge of God and Man's Free Will"

Reza Baqizadeh


Since their beginning, religious doctrines have countered different challenges and erroneous ideas. Some of these ideas are natural and are ascribe to people’s agile mind and others result from people’s prejudice and opponents' antagonism. Among these erroneous nations about religious beliefs is "the relationship between the foreknowledge of God and man's free will", which has long been the special concern of thinkers. In other words, the crucial question that arises is, "Does God's foreknowledge of man's acts divest him of his free will"?

The present paper provides a response based on transcendent philosophy to this allegation, and indicates that man's free act are the object of eternal Divine knowledge that is, object of eternal Divine knowledge is man's free acts. The paper points to conclusion that God's eternal knowledge does not contradict man's free will and does not contribute to determinism of man's acts.

Key words: God, man, God's foreknowledge, free will, transcendent philosophy.



Illuminative Method; Distinctive Feature of Philosophy of Illumination

Mansooreh Sadat Husseini


A look at the existing philosophical schools shows that the philosophy of illumination which adopts an illuminative method is the most distinguished of all philosophical systems. The present paper tries to explain the illuminative system through a brief review of the influential philosophical principles and elements of this school. It not only refers to the works and views of Shaykh al-Ishraq but also to the works of other philosophers and thinkers who have contributed in this field.

However, the point which is worth considering here as the final result of this discussion is that although Shaykh al-Ishraq sees that deductive method along with illuminative method is a necessary condition to attain the truth, he believes that mere reliance on a demonstrative method to achieve the real aim (i.e. disclosure of reality) is insufficient. He holds that a more efficient method is that which, besides relying on peripatetic views, is founded on the doctrines of true Shari'ah and on such sources as ancient philosophers' views, thus testifying to the agreement and harmony between reason and illumination.

Key words: illumination, intuition, illuminative method, immediate knowledge, polemic philosophy, intuitive philosophy.



The Function of Islamic Philosophy in the Context of Freedom of Thought and Deliverance from Intellectual Imitation

Ali Shafabakhsh


Intellectual independence and free thinking are among the most important characteristics which everyone, especially religious scholars and researchers strive to attain. However, " evil of personality cult", showing excessive love and respect to the learned, and being extremely impressed by scholars, which hinder true cognition, prevent science and knowledge seekers from logical, analytical and critical confrontation with scholars' views and entangle them in the trap of self-doubt and intellectual imitation. Some philosophers, in their turn, offer useful recommendations and solutions to get free from intellectual captivity and to achieve "independent thinking". However, this paper presumes that "learning philosophy" and the resultant "commitment to argument-orientation" is one of the ways which have greatly contributed to achieving this aim. It proves that independent thinking and eliminating imitation in the field of beliefs are among the different functions of Islamic philosophy.

Key words: Islamic philosophy, function of Islamic philosophy, open mindedness, imitation in thinking, logic, argument-orientation.



A Review of the Relationship between Knowledge and Religion from Imam Khomeini's Viewpoint

Ali Asghar Iftikharinezhad, Mehran Rezai


The relationships between religion and knowledge and convergence or divergence between them have long been a subject of inquiry and speculation in the study of religion. The evaluation of relationship between knowledge and religion is considered one of the new issues (Kalam). The present paper seeks through a descriptive analysis to examine the relationship between knowledge and religion from the viewpoint of Imam Khomeini, one of the great contemporary thinkers on religion.

According to this research, Imam Khomeini (May his soul be sanctified) strongly criticizes those who say that there is a conflict between science and religion. He sees that conflicts may happen between science and religion between now and then, but they are superficial and formal conflicts. He considers that without knowledge religion cannot bring happiness to man; rather, it leads to his distress. Science and religion function like two wings and have the capacity to meet all man's needs. This paper tries to elaborate on the relationship between science and religion by referring to Imam Khomeini's view concerning scientific and religious principles.

Key words: Imam Khomeini (May his spirit be sanctified), science, religion, conflict, harmony, seminary(hawzah), university.



Unity of the Divine Acts from Mullah Sadra's Viewpoint

Seyyed Ali Hashemi


Monotheism in its all different dimensions, including Unity of Divine Acts, is central to all Islamic doctrines. The present paper tries to study and scrutinize Mullah Sadra's view on this issue by referring to his works through using a descriptive- analytical method. The aim of this article is to explore Mullah Ṣadrā’s innovations in expounding the important doctrine of Unity of Divine Acts.

Although Mullah Sadra, like other philosophers, talks about a longitudinal relationship between God and creatures in some cases, he tries to offer a more precise explanation of the relationship of Unity of Divine Acts with man's free will and causes on the basis of theoretical mysticism. He believes that just as individual's existence is really attributed to the very individual it is also one of the Most High God's affairs. Therefore, knowledge, will, acts and all that an individual earns is really attributed to God. As a result, man's act in its highest and noblest form which is appropriate for the Essence of Divine Unity is among God's acts.

Key words: monotheism, man's free will, causes, relationship between God and man.



An Inquiry into Conditions for the Formation of 'Allamah Tabatabaii's Scientific and Religious Personality as the Grounds for Achieving Religious Knowledge

Isaac Taheri, Mahdi Jalalvand


'Allamah Tabatabaii is a famous and great thinker who, through deliberating on the manifest religion of Islam, presented to the world different methods of understanding religion. Reviewing the past of this godly figure, and the works left by him and his students, the present paper examine the conditions of the development of the deep religious knowledge of this godly scholar. Also, his personality traits and kind of education which he received and which serves as a good example of Islamic education, have important role in this regard.

Using a descriptive-analytical method, the author views that there are several influential factor behind the formation of 'Allamah Tabatabaii's religious and scientific personality and refers to the effects of his family, teachers and companions as the more salient factor, apart from the aid of the Unseen which had especial significance in his life. Cultural and epistemological contexts of his time also contributed to orientating his movement towards religious knowledge.

Key words: 'Allamah Tabatabaii, religious knowledge, personality background, epistemological contexts.