'Allāmah ṬabāṭabaῙ’s Method of Commentary

'Allamah Mohammad Taqi Misbah

"Qur’an Commentary" means explaining the outward meaning of the Qur’an, i.e., the Qur’an is not intended to explain inner meaning. Late 'Allāmah ṬabāṭabaῙ claims that understanding the Qur’an does not need referring to any source other than the Qur’an. Some Qur’anic verses explain the meaning of other Qur’anic verses. Therefore, the commentary of Al-Mizan is based on the Qur’an-by-the Qur’an method of interpretation. Furthermore, the Qur’an has esoteric and inner meaning, and when dealing with the inner and esoteric meaning, we cannot extract it from the Qur’an itself.
When an interpreter wants to understand the language of the Qur’an he/she has to refer to the dictionary, which is quite reasonable and in line with the method of commentary. Although some features of the injunctions of Islam which the Qur’an tries to explain have been expounded, one has to refer to the traditions related from the Holy prophet and his family in order to have a clear idea. For example, we have been informed of the principle of "prayer" by the Qur’an, but in order to have detailed knowledge of Qur’anic commands we should refer to prophet's traditions and Sunna. This does not mean that we need traditions to interpret the "prayer".
Key words: 'Allāmah ṬabāṭabaῙ, commentary of the Qur’an, esoteric commentary of the Qur’an, inner dimensions of the Qur’an.


Para phrasing in the Qur’an

Mohammad Naqibzadeh

"Paraphrasing" means expressing the deep meaning and thrust without using the exact words when we want to clarify an idea or occurrence. Sometimes, the Qur’an talks about certain people using different expressions to describe a particular event or introduces an account about an event from different perspectives. The evidence proving this phenomenon in the Qur’an is as follows: non-Arab identity of some of the people cited in the Qur’an; the miracle in Qur’an and its being unique, the use of different expressions in describing an event or relating a saying; observing the distances between different verses and conveying inner meaning of the Qur’an.  
Since the narrator, i.e., the Most High God, has a full knowledge of linguistic features, the meaning is conveyed accurately and the expressions are used in such a way that the real intent of the speaker is eloquently and fully expressed. The belief in the existence of paraphrasing has some effects on Islamic sciences including fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence), the Qur’an commentary, and Qur’anic sciences. For example, paraphrasing can be used in such cases, like narrating, rebutting the fallacious claim that the Qur’an is disharmonious in its narrations and defending the fact that the language of the Qur’an reflects the reality. The research method is descriptive-analytical.
Key words: language of the Qur’an, reflecting the reality, paraphrasing, the miracle of the Qur’an, inner meaning.


The First Compilation of the Qur’an

Hassan Rezaii Haftador

John Burton, an English researcher of the Qur’an, believes that the Qur’an which we have today is the one which was compiled by the Holy Prophet during his lifetime. The problem of nullification of recitation and preservation of judgment is the main reason for excluding the role of Holy prophet (peace be upon him and his progeny) from the compilation of the Qur’an. The idea of nullification of recitation and preservation of judgment has no external reality. Although Burton’s theory includes some positive aspects, some serious criticisms have been leveled against some of the foundations of his veiws. What we understand from the information in Burton’s research is that the traditions relating to the compilation of the Qur’an increased and were completed in the third century ('AH'), while careful and in-depth research shows that these traditions are found in the sources of the first two centuries ('AH'). Besides, does not mention any source which historically supports his depiction of the development of these traditions. This is the main criticism leveled against his research about the traditions relating to the compilation of the Qur’an. The present paper uses an analytical-descriptive method.
Key words: John Burton, compilation of the Qur’an, nullification, scholars of Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence.


An Inquiry into the Kinds of Allegory
in the Parables and Stories of the Holy Qur’an

Niloofar Rezazadeh, Fatemeh Shahroodi

The Qur’an is a guide book for mankind in all ages. The style of writing the Qur’an differs from that of writing other books and sometimes explains its teachings are demonstrated in a skillful and literary language in the form of parable, story and so on, so that all people can understand them. Some scholars believe that one forth or one sixth of the Qur’an is in the form of stories or narratives and that it contains nearly sixty parables.
The main aim of this paper is recognizing the kinds of allegories in the stories and parables of the Qur’an in terms of their structure (method of equation, story about man and story about animals) and in terms of content (simple moral allegory, allegory of thought allegory of dream, and symbolic, political-historical allegory). The results of this paper which uses a analytical-descriptive method show that the structure of the parables in the Qur’an has different human narration groups and concerning their content parables are divided into two groups: "simple moral allegory" and " allegory of thought". Furthermore, Qur’anic stories fall into two groups: human and animal narrations in terms of their structure. As far as their content is concerned, they not only include moral allegory and allegory of thought but they are part of in other kinds of allegories: dream, symbolic, political-historical allegories.
Key words: allegory, parable, Qur’anic stories, story.


The Sacred Book with Imam Ali,
the Commander of the Faithful (p.b.u.h), and Its Organization

Fatemeh Zhiyan

As a first comprehensive sacred book, the first systematized commentary of the Qur’an and the first book on Qur’anic sciences the sacred Book with Imam Ali has special significance. Its content is discussed when the distortion of originality of the Qur’an is in question, and the issue of the of verses and chapters of the Qur’an is discussed when the question as to whether the organization of Qur’anic verses and chapters is based on independent judgment or on instruction is dealt with.
The present paper focuses on the different views put forward about the organization of Imam Ali's sacred book and on the evidence offered by those who claim that there is contradiction between the organization of this book and that of the Qur’an we have today. The main aim of this research is to show that if the organization of this sacred book is not well and clearly defined, then we can never rely on it in as far as the  on instruction or base on independent judgment organization of verses and chapters is concerned. Therefore, the evidence given by those who believe in the descent fashion of the order of that book are not perfect and the denotation of their most important evidence taken from historical traditions and narratives lacks precision. The researcher uses a library and problem-research method.
Key words: sacred book, the Qur’an, Imam Ali (p.b.u.h), organization, descent, verses, chapters.


Imam Khomeini (May his spirit be sanctified)
and Applications of Interpretive Traditions

Alireza Koohi

Researchers of the Qur’an have devoted much attention to subject of the validity and application of interpretive riwayat (traditions). Imam Khomeini (may his spirit be sanctified) regards interpretive traditions as important and most useful source of interpretation. He thinks that the Fourteen Infallibles' traditions have a kind of spirituality and illumination which the sayings of others lack. Although, contrary to his views about legal traditions, he does not consider interpretive traditions as authoritative, this does not mean that he considers interpretive traditions unreliable or rejects them. Therefore, he frequently uses interpretive traditions in his commentary of the Qur’an.
The present paper investigates how and to what extent has Imam Khomeini referred to interpretive traditions. The instances of the traditions he has cited have been calculated after reviewing the interpretive traditions in all his works. It seems that he has used interpretive traditions in such instances as esoteric commentary, applicability, conformation and explanation of the meanings of Qur’anic verses, commentary, and the occasion of the revelation of Quranic verses.
Key words: commentary, esoteric commentary, conformation, descent.


The Effects of Divine Love for Good-Doers in the Qur’an

Aboozar Tashakkori Saleh

The emphasis on divine love for good-doers which is clearly expressed in the Qur’an makes one realize the special importance of exploring the effects of such a love. On the other hand, acquaintance with the effects of divine love which the Qur’an has authenticated has important moral results. Using a descriptive-analytical method, the present paper seeks to show the effects of divine love for good-doers mentioned in the Glorious Qur’an by reviewing the relevant Qur’anic verses and commentaries and other available sources. The research findings show that the effects of divine love for good-doers mentioned in the Qur’an can be divided into two types: worldly and other worldly. According to the Qur’an, some of the worldly effects of divine love for good-doers are as follows: attainment of guidance, immediate and early reward in this world, God's support, and divine mercy, reaching a high status, deserving divine greetings, acceptance of good-doers’ work and immunity from reproach and punishment. Among the other-worldly effects are: "blessings in the Garden" and "abundant reward".
Key words: effects of divine love, the Qur’an, good-doers, beneficence, worldly effects, other-worldly effects.


The Relationship between  Shafa’ah (Intercession)
and Believers' Spiritual Station

Seyyed Mustafa Husseininasab

Intercession in the hereafter is one of the important doctrinal issues in Islam. The question that arises here is: Does, according to the Qur’an, intercession and state of being interceded in the hereafter have an ontological relationship with the individual's spiritual station in the idiomatic sense in common theoretical mysticism. Using a theoretical approach and documentary method, the present paper divides Qur’anic verses about intercession into eight groups and studies the relationship between them. Finally, the research findings show that intercession, according to Qur’an, is among the ontological effects of spiritual stations the common sense in theoretical mysticism which a faithful individual attains through the will of God by means of performing divine acts of worship, such as night prayer. Furthermore, there is a direct ontological relationship between the state of being interceded and the idiomatic spiritual station. In other words, an individual ontologically reaches a higher spiritual station than the former one after having been interceded.
Key words: intercession, spiritual station, polytheism, faith, the will of God.


A Review Assigning Man as God's Vicegerent according to the Qur’an; a Critique of an Article Entitled "Assigning Man as God's Vicegerent according to the Qur’an"

Mohammad Hashim Zamani

God's vicegerency is one of the important which has been the special concern of issues most thinkers, who have approved it and mentioned some of its outcomes. The issue of assigning man as God's vicegerent according to the Qur’an has interpretive and theological aspects. This issue has been basis for doctrinal and mystical arguments and perceptions. The central Qur’anic verse of this issue is the verse of vicegerency i.e.( verse 30 of Surah Cow) which thinkers and commentators usually cite as evidence to support to the idea of assigning man as God's vicegerent. The present paper criticizes an article entitled "Assigning Man as God's Vicegerent according to Qur’an", whose author sheds light on the station of Divine vicegerency, accepting the principle that man is God's vicegerent. To this end, it analyzes and criticizes the content of aforementioned article point by point uses reasoning and cites evidence from the Qur’an. The results show that the author of the article is totally unable to prove that man has been assigned for God's vicegerency and so the ideas which he based on aforementioned principle are neither constant nor authentic.
Key words: vicegerency, divine names, perfect man, Imam (Imamate)


A Glance at a Criticism; a Critique of the Article Entitled "A Review of Assigning Man as God's Vicegerent according to the Qur’an"

Mohammad Hussein Faryab

Assigning man as God's vicegerent which is referred to in the thirtieth verse of chapter two (the cow) is among the questions to which thinkers have devoted special attention. The author of the present paper has dealt with this issue in an article entitled "Assigning man as God's vicegerent according to Qur’an" and reached the conclusion that man is God's vicegerent. According to him, man has been chosen for this because of his ability to receive divine names intuitively. The author believes that everyone is potentially capable of achieving this aim, although few people have actually achieved it. One of the researchers of Qom seminary has commented on this article, making explicit that the Qur’an has basically not dealt with what is called assigning man as God's vicegerent. This paper is concerned with this critique.
Key words: God's vicegerent, man, vicegerency, the Qur’an.