An Inquiry into the Concept and Scope of Friendship (Authority)

Ayatollah 'Allamah Mohammad Taqi Misbah 

The term "authority (wiläyah)" and its derivatives have been used 233 times in the Glorious Quran. These terms are sometimes in the form of equivocation and univocation and sometimes have literal and figurative meanings.
The term "authority" is applied to a situation where two entities have deep relationship so that they cannot be separated and one influences the other or vice versa. Divine authority is of two kinds: authority in legislation and authority in creation. General dispositions related to all creatures are called "general authority in creation" and particular dispositions related to God's Friends and those who approach to God as much as possible are called "particular authority in creation". "Authority in legislation" in social, conventional, and legislative affairs is taken to mean providing guidelines and law-making which is provided by God to guide men. Then God entrusts this authority to His vicegerents.
Nearness to God as much as possible is an acquired nearness which is attained in the light of obedience to Divine decrees, whereby believing servants entrust their affairs to God and totally rely on Him. Those who approach to God enjoy Godwariness and avoid committing sins.
Key words: nearness to God as much as possible, reliance on God, authority (wiläyah), general authority in creation, particular authority in creation, Authority in legislation.


The Ideal Family in Imam Sajjad's Thought

Sa'eed Moqaddam

In recent decades, there have been many threats and damages which have challenged family as a social institution. Therefore, it is necessary to provide a model of ideal family from religious perspective in order to confront new threats. Using content analysis, the present paper seeks to study the ideal family in Imam Sajjad's thought. It aims at depicting the ideal family based on features extract from his thought and providing modus operandi to actualize this ideal institution.
Although the ideal family is formed to meet sexual needs, it contributes to fostering monotheist men and due to its monotheistic foundation as well as some features and modus operandi extracted from revealed principles provides the grounds for an ideal society
Key words: ideal family, Imam Sajjad's thought, features, modus operandi.


The Causes of Seditions and Ways to Keep Ourselves away from Them in Islamic Government as Reflected in the Words of Imam Ali
(Commander of Faithful- peace be upon him)

'Arefeh Khorvash, Hamid Reza Narimani

Seditions and riots provoked by enemies in all societies, especially in Islamic societies, have been among the most crucial social crises which may lead to break down and destruction of a system of government and have many harmful consequences for its people if they are not recognized and dealt with properly.
The present aims at studying the roots and causes of seditions and riots occurring in Islamic government and providing ways to keep ourselves away from them. To this end, Imam Ali's valuable sayings in Nahj al-Baläqah (Peak of Eloquence) on the issue were gathered, classified, and analyzed (discourse analysis), which was based on professor Dashti's indexing and classifications in his translation of Nahj al-Baläqah.
The research findings show that, according to Imam Ali, the most important features of seditions and riots have to be taken as casting and promoting doubts by enemies, confusion of truth and untruth, and inability to recognize them correctly. Furthermore, in Imam Ali's view the absolute obedience to the religious authority as a leader and avoidance of any division and disunity are the most basic ways to keep oneself away from seditions and riots.
Key words: Nahj al-Baläqah, Islamic government, sedition, obedience to the religious authority (leader), unity.


Persuasion, its Norms and Criteria, and the Way it Influences the Opinions of people from the View of the holy Qur'än

Mohammad Kazim Shaker, Hussein Hajipoor

Persuasion is a communicative process whose main aim is to convey information by influencing the audience. According to existing definitions, explanations, and methods of persuasion, persuasive effectiveness is mostly attained by means of imposition and deception through persuasion. Although Qur'änic verses and doctrines support persuasion and use of influential persuasive methods in conveying ideas and thoughts to people, they never agree with deception through persuasion. Therefore, we can attain some criteria for persuasion consulting the Glorious Quran. Using confessional approach to the Qur'änic verses, the present paper discusses the most important criteria for any persuasive activity. To analyze the Qur'änic doctrines and propositions, theological and interpretive approaches have been used. "Freedom of thought" and" applying proper devices" is among the important criteria for any persuasive process. Applying illegal devices and these methods which deprive audience from 'freedom of thought' and 'decision making' are considered as persuasion through deception and an illegal act. The Glorious Quran warns its audience not to be influenced by persuasion through deception.
Key words: persuasion, freedom of thought, application of devices, criteria for persuasion.


A Prelude to Islamic Communications in Religious Society (from Religious Science to the Science of Religious Communications)

Karim Khanmohammadi, Dawood Rahimi Sajasi

The present paper claims that if modern science has a cultural and historical identity with no relation to reason and revelation, then we can contemplate on a religious science - based on the authority of reason, revelation, and experience- as well as reviving Islamic culture, civilization, and history. The realization of religious science and science of religious communications will finally provide the grounds for the formation of a religious society. The research findings showed that the realization of science of religious communications is based on the production of religious sciences and the realization of religious society is based on the science of religious communications and religious science. Furthermore, this paper has referred to the Holy Prophet's way of communication as a realized model of interpersonal communication, from which the principles and foundations of science of religious communications can be extracted. Derrida's reanalysis and deconstruction method has been used in this research and a documentary method has been used to gather data.
Key words: modern science, positivistic science, postmodern science, science of communication, religious science, religious communications.


The Analysis of Functions of Traditional ways of disseminating in Modern Society

Roohullah  'Abbaszadeh

In the modern society in which we witness new communication technologies, recognizing influential ways of disseminating religious doctrines is an important step towards spreading of divine sciences, internalizing of religious values, and strengthening the belief in God in the society. The review of features and functions of traditional method of disseminating religious doctrines which is common in seminaries and based on face to face communications can help us achieve this aim. Is this method of disseminating religious doctrines still influential in spite of structural changes in society? What are its functions in modern society?
The present paper seeks to review and analyze the features and personal and social functions of this method in modern society. It seems necessary to review its features and compare it with modern methods of propagation in order to prove its effectiveness. The present research has used a documentary method and fieldwork. Some of the research findings showed that the traditional method of disseminating religious doctrines continue to have some functions in different sectors of society due to its particular features. Therefore, the above mentioned method is of pivotal role in disseminating religious doctrines, though modern mass media can be a significant factor too.
Key words: religion, propagandist, traditional dissemination of religious doctrines, function, acculturation.


Female University Students' Islamic Covering; Finding out the Reasons of Their Carelessness about It and Ways of solving the Problem

Seyfullah Fazlollahi

The present paper seeks to find out the reasons why female university students are careless about Islamic covering and provide the ways to promote it among them, based on their own views. A descriptive- survey method was used in this research and statistical universe included female students of universities in Qom from whom 262 students were selected according to Morgan and Kerjesi's table through simple and classified random sampling, as sample. Two researcher-made inventories (with 18 items in Likert's scale with reliability of 0.78 and 17 rank ordered techniques with reliability of 0.89) based on Cronbach's alpha were used to gather data. The data analysis showed that cultural- doctrinal factors have positive and significant effect on female university students' carelessness about Islamic covering. Environmental-psychological, cultural-social, and sociopolitical factors have no positive and significant effect although their average scores were beyond expectations. The intensity of influence of different factors on carelessness about Islamic covering among university students is not significant. Making plans to fill the cultural and educational gap between schools and universities, enlightening public opinion, particularly female university students on irremediable consequences of improper covering, and promotion and strengthening the religious morale to commit to social values were the most prior strategies to promote Islamic covering among female university students, respectively.
Key words: Islamic covering, female university students, universities, strategies of promotion, reasons of carelessness. 


The Review and Analysis of Intellectual Project and Thoughts of Ṭahä 'Abd al-Rahmän, Contemporary Moroccan Thinker

Hadi Beigi Malekabad

The present paper seeks to review and make some critical remarks on the intellectual project and thoughts of Taha Ṭahä 'Abd al-Rahmän, the contemporary Moroccan thinker. To this end, it first deals with his intellectual and educational backgrounds by adopting a particular pattern to discuss his thoughts. Then it refers to the important components of his intellectual system, that is, his ontology, epistemology, and anthropology. Finally, such important issues as religion, modernity, social heritage and philosophy have been scrutinized based on his viewpoint. A documentary-analytical method has been used in this research.
Key words: ontology, epistemology, anthropology, ethics, religion, modernity.