Other Manifestations of the Love for God (2)

Ayatollah 'Allamah Mohammad Taqi Misbah


"Love" for God has some effects and requirements. God's friends suffer discomfort who due to the problems and troubles of worldly life and distance from the beloved, eagerly seek for His neighborhood, good-pleasure and nearness. They, hereby, reach the shore of solace, and turbulent worldly life and the hardships they face in this world never make them attached to this world. They find joy in their obedience to God, invocation and calling upon God in meekness, and they give nothing in return for these spiritual states. Wailing and groaning are sometimes ascribed to the troubles of life and sometimes to joy and happiness. God's pure servants often groan and lament out of yearning to and happiness of meeting the beloved for fear of being bereft of this state, due to the fact that their hearts are replete with the love of God and lurch before His might and majesty.

Key words: love, love for God, solace, joy and happiness, worship, servitude.



The Nature of Freemasonry

Jawad Soleimani Amiri


One of the mysterious and semi-covert international trends is freemasonry, which has had some effects on thinking, culture, and politics. Adopting particular devises, this trend tries to establish its cultural, political, and economic control over the nations worldwide. Its effective organized activities were manifestly observable in religious societies during the twentieth century, but today the signs of activities of this anonymous trend can sometimes be noticed in religious circles. One of the freemasons' aims is to permute religiously-oriented revolutions by using a dangerous strategy, i.e., rejecting religion in the name of religion. The plan of Masons is aimed at distorting religious sciences and shaking people's faith in true religious sciences. Relying on Yahyā Hāron's works and works of other researchers working on freemasonry, the present paper expounds the concept and roots of freemasonry and masons' views on religion and religious knowledge, focusing on some statements quoted from Turkish masons.

Key words: freemasonry, distortion of religion, permutation of revolution, intelligence service, covert organizations.



An Inquiry into the Need for the Foundations of Theory of Guardianship of Religious Jurist in Terms of Authorities (Powers)

Mahdi Qorbani


 Different theories about the management of human societies have been proposed over the history such as the theory of guardianship of religious jurist. Some doubts have, for some reasons, been cast on this theory. One the main doubts is the issue of "jurisdiction of religious jurist and lack of particular scope of it". Using a descriptive-analytical method, the present paper elaborates on the question of the need for the foundations of theory of guardianship of religious jurist in terms of the jurisdiction of religious jurist due to the significant status of the foundations of a theory in analyzing its outcomes. To this end, the need which the ontological, anthropological epistemological, and teleological foundations of the theory of guardianship of religious jurist has in terms of the jurisdiction of religious jurist has been examined and its limitations and frameworks are explained.  From among these limitations and frameworks are divine rules, expediency of Islamic society, justice and people's supervision.

Key words: foundations, guardianship of religious jurist, ontology, anthropology, epistemology, teleology.



Political Pathology of the Trend of Islamic Awakening

Hadi Ma'soomi Zare'


The events and changes that occurred recently (from January 2011 through January 2012) in the Muslim world and their concomitant developments have attracted the attention of people all over the world. Most political analysts believed that there would be a steady rhythm of future developments in the region, the boundaries and indexes of the existing order unexpectedly broke and resulted in astonishing events in Islamic world, including Islamic awakening are among the changes.

The present paper which uses a documentary –analytical method, and makes a study of the most important political challenges and damages facing revolutions in Islamic world in their different phases of formation, stabilization and development, seeks to introduce a comprehensive geometry of the pathology of these revolutions.  The serious threats to recent Islamic revolutions which are worth mentioning are as fallows; the absence of a specific leadership, small scale of discourse, the problem of system-making (systemization), reliance on bureaucratic mechanisms, infiltration of westernized liberals and opportunistic individuals on a large scale in the decision-making of revolution, compromise between revolutionists and western colonial countries and making a deal over the principles of revolution.

Key words: Islamic awakening, revolution, damages, challenges, the West, system-making (systematization), discourse.



The Ultimate Aim of Government in Imam Khomeini's View

Seyyedeh 'Aliyeh Azartoos


There are several theories about the ultimate aim of government, and so every thinker or school of thought adopts a particular attitude derived from his/its intellectual principles. With regard to the features upon which man's creation is based, Islam considers the perfection of individual and welfare of people as the ultimate aim. Rulers are to stabilize the basis of their government by achieving this aim. The present paper seeks to study the ultimate aim of religious government according to Imam Khomeini's thought. It is understood form Imam Khomeini's works that he considers achieving welfare as the ultimate aim of government and as the existential reality resulting from these moderate pleasures and apprehension which is compatible with man's nature. Such factors as monotheistic spirit, faith, God fearing, self-refinement, heart purification, paying special attention to the prayers, supplication to and worshiping God, insight, courage, abiding by the rules, observing justice and preserving independence and security contribute to the attainment of happiness. Therefore, this paper is concerned with three novel points: the meaning of happiness, its difference from pleasure and similarity with perfection, and considers ensuring happiness for individuals as the ultimate aim of Islam's political system.

Key words: ultimate aim, happiness, perfection, pleasure, religious government, Imam Khomeini (May God sanctify his spirit)



A Review of Sheikh Fazlullāh Noori and Ayatollāh Misbāh's Political Thought about Modern Concepts

Abolfazl Zokaii


New definitions of modern concepts entered into the intellectuals' political discourse in Iran with the establishment of the Qajar dynasty and the travel to West by many academic intellectuals and elite of the time. The entrance of new definitions of a number of subjects like law, legislation, freedom and equality into political literature has made the clerics and religious scholars express their views in this respect.

Using a descriptive-analytical method and making historical-library studies, the present paper studies Sheikh Fazlollāh Noor and Ayatollāh Misbāh's political views on the new definitions of modern concepts. The reason why the views of Ayatollah Misbah, one of the leading thinkers on political thoughts of Islamic republic along with the views of Sheikh Fazlollāh are investigated is that Ayatollāh Misbāh has stressed the idea of restoration of Islam despite the harsh criticisms sparked against him by some intellectual groups. Therefore, the acquaintance with these two personalities contributes to highlighting the idea of the present research and better understanding of the main issues. We can conclude that Sheikh Fazlollāh's and Ayatollāh Misbāh's thoughts are based on the restoration of Islam and the differences that exist in the style of treating various issues do not their suggest the sort of religious thoughts, rather, they can be justified on the grounds of the political literature of every period. 

Key words: law, legislation, parliament, freedom, equality, sultanate, absolute guardianship of religious jurist.      



Social Justice in Nahjul Balāghah

Seyyed Jawad Ahmadi


Prophets and Imams' most important duty is to establishment and administering social justice. Imam Ali (peace be upon him) is a perfect symbol of justice and his sayings provide solutions to man's problems. The main concern of present paper is to shed light on Imam Ali's valuable sayings on social justice. The paper uses a descriptive- analytical and documentary method to study and review the subject in question. The most important research findings show that Imam Ali (Commander of the Faithful) has considers administration of social justice as the best act and a just leader as the best and most praiseworthy servant of God. He believes that social justice makes people satisfied at the performance of government, prevents public disturbance and guarantees country's security and stability. He also believes that people have an important role in the realization of social justice, and that the major obstacles to its establishment are indulgence in whims and unqualified officials….etc.

Key words: Imam Ali (peace be upon him) Nahjul Balāghah, justice, social justice



A Review of Imam Muhammad Ghazali's Political Thought

Heydar Faramarzi


The present paper aims at investigating Imam Muhammad Ghazali's political thoughts in terms of the manner his use of intra-religious sources to enable his contemporary society to lead a better life. This case study which relies on the available evidence and sources, particularly Ghazali's main works attempts through an analytical method to study his political thoughts. The most important research finding shows that it is impossible to analyze Ghazali's political thought on the basis of religious foundations without considering the four agents of politics (i.e.ruler, faqih, religious scholar and preacher). The ruler and faqih are to correct the social and external life of the elite and the masses, and religious scholars and preachers are to set right the internal and private life of the elite and the masses. These four agents will make successful in managing the society if the knowledge about the principles of religion, and the philosophy of existence of man and his position in the universe is found in the area of education.

Key words: Imam Muhammad Ghazali, politics, ruler, religious scholar, preacher, faqih, education.