The Origin of Remembrance of God and the Ways of Strengthening It

Ayatollah 'Allamah Mohammad Taqi Misbah


"Remembrance" means recalling something which one knows but he/she is presently heedless of it. This remembrance is one of the functions of man's heart. Heart, which is an important organ is regarded the center of thoughts and feelings. Remembrance is sometimes involuntary and so one will not forget a thing, if he/she wants to.

The degree of our remembrance of what we know depends on the degree of our love and hate for it. If our attachment, love or hate for something is ordinary, we will forget it very soon, but if our love for something is overwhelming and our hate is intense we will never forget it. Therefore, our scant belief in and love for God lead to the forgetfulness of the Most High God, but when our love for and belief in God is great, nothing will make us forget God's remembrance.

 The Glorified God give aid to devoted servants of God who always remember God lest they should become forgetful and thus they always think of their Adorable

Key words: love, remembrance of God, love for God, ways of strengthening remembrance of God.


The Features and Criteria of Chastity and Woman's Modesty in Islamic Society

Rafi' al-Din Ismaili, Hafize Mahdiyan



Although man and woman are regarded alike in terms of nature and essence and have no difference with regard to their reality and species there are some differences concerning their physical and mental characteristics, and so the natural and genetic differences between man and woman are undeniable. Islam accepts the idea of woman's participation in social activities but it has put some conditions taking into consideration the natural characteristics (physical, mental, etc.) and kind of relations between man and woman. The present paper seeks to make explicit the parameters and criteria adopted by Islam for woman's participation in social activities. Therefore, it tries to elaborate on the features and criteria of woman's role in this regard, using a documentary method and reviewing Quranic verses and traditions. This paper elucidates four main criteria for woman's participation in social activities; such as (woman's dress, observing Islamic injunctions, refraining from showing off and keeping control of one's eye), and each of these criteria has some components.

Key words: chastity, modesty, Islam, participation in social activities. 


Iranians' Encounter with Feminism: from Iranian Feminism to Islamic Feminism

Ismail Cheraghi Kootiyani


The important outcome of Iranian's encounter with modernity is a conflict between religious traditions and modernity. The area of the issues about women and family is part of this conflict. Using a historical- sociological approach and documentary- library method, the present paper seeks to answer to the following questions: when did feministic thought enter the ideological atmosphere of the Iranian society? Under what circumstances did this kind of thought prevail? And what stages did it pass through wherein? The research findings indicate that the events preceding and following the Constitutional Revolution prepared the ground for the familiarity of some Iranian women with the women's movement in the West. In the meantime, a semi-movement which took form in Iran emphasized on women's a better quality of life and on recognizing their rights. When the Pahlavi regime come to power this movement took a governmental form and turned into a soothed wave. After the victory of the Islamic Revolution, the third wave of this movement whose principles were convergent with those of western feminism came to existence. This wave consists of various and sometimes contradictory groups and , in spite of the many differences between them, they all agree that the explanation of modern issues should not be based on religion. These approaches lack a scientific outlook on the one hand and they are only concerned with the very issues of western women, taking no regard to the cultural and national capacities in solving women's problem, on the other. Furthermore, these approaches are, more or less political, and can serve the enemy's purposes and be serious menace to our national security.

Key words: Iranian feminism, Islamic feminism, modernity, constitutionalism, the Islamic Revolution.


The Contextual Factors of Sociopolitical Education (Spouse-Selecting)

Ghorban'ali Rezwani, Abulfazl Sajedi


The family exerts the first and most important influence on the formation of children's sociopolitical beliefs, values and perspectives. The values that are cherished during the initial stage of learning are often preserved throughout one's life and contribute to regulating his/her sociopolitical relations. The studies show that the children who come from families whose sociopolitical viewpoints are usually harmonious, receive coherent sociopolitical massages and values. Therefore, sociologists and social psychologists propose "homogamy" for a child's proper and coherent sociopolitical sociability in personality, cultural, social and political domains.

Religious sources devote special attention to the different aspects of spouse's personality in as far as spouse-selection is concerned. These sources take into consideration such inherited characteristics like intelligence, bravery and patience, on the one hand. On the other hand, the spouse's acquired characteristics in the cognitive, emotional and behavioral domains which have influence on sociopolitical education are emphasized.  The idea of matching in spouse-selection refers to value orientation in the process of selecting a spouse, i.e., faith-based and moral qualities which characterize every sociopolitical dimension of a spouse's personality. 

Key words: the contextual factors of education, sociopolitical education, political sociability, spouse-selection, spouse's characteristics, matching.


A Sociological Study of the Function of Mosques in Relation to the Dynamism of Islamic Culture

Jaber Mirzapoori – Gholamali Esmaili karizi


The present paper seeks to study the function of mosques for the formation, strengthening, development and dynamism of Islamic culture. A documentary and monograph method, the technique of open questionnaire, interviews, participant observation, and note-taking were used for gathering the data. The approach and theoretical model of the research are based on Parsons, Morton and Durkheim's functional theories, according to which mosques have implicit and explicit functions in four social, cultural, political and economic dimensions. The data were analyzed through a logical and argumentative method to see the distinction between the research findings and the theoretical model. The research findings show that mosques have some kind of functional necessity for achieving the aims of Islamic society and  their implicit and explicit functions in social, cultural, political and economic dimensions lead to the strengthening, development and dynamism of Islamic culture. Furthermore, mosques and their functions increase in strength through a dialectical relationship with their own functions and thus turn into a dynamism of Islamic culture.

Key words: mosques, function, cultural dynamism, Islamic culture.


The Relationship between Religiosity and Sense of Social Security among the Women in Northern and Southern Tehran

Yasaman Farshadfar, Muhsen Niyazi


As one of the most important components of the order and stability of social system, the idea of social security is of special interest to thinkers today. The sense of security is of particular importance, particularly for women, who form half of the society. In the meantime, religion which represents a symbol of social solidarity plays a fundamental role in promoting the sense of social security. The main aim of the present paper is to study the relationship between religiosity rate and sense of social security among the women in question.

This study is a social survey, in which a questionnaire and interview for gathering data. The statistical population includes all the women in the stage of liveliness who live in northern and southern Tehran. The research findings explain the relationship between religiosity rate and sense of security. They make explicit that there is a significant relationship between religiosity rate and sense of security among the women living in northern and southern Tehran.

Key words: religion, religiosity, security, social security, women.


Justice in Governmental Fiqh (Jurisprudence)

'Abbas'ali Meshkati Sabzevari,  Gholamali Esmaili karizi, 'Abdullah Sarkari


Using a library survey and an analytical method, the present paper seeks to elaborate on the relationship between fiqh (jurisprudence) and justice according to different fiqhi (jurisprudential) paradigms. The degree of attention given to justice differs according to the different fiqhi periods. In traditional fiqh, justice is often viewed as a personal characteristic, but in governmental fiqh, justice is used as a criterion for distinguishing between the soundness and unsoundness of every injunction. Governmental fiqh which is justice-oriented prepares the ground for administering justice after being implemented. The Islamic Revolution, which is inspired by and centered on Shiite fiqh and which is now striding ahead, attempts to achieve minimal, medium and maximal justice in three stages; namely, creation, establishment and development, respectively making use of its specialized software. The Islamic Revolution cannot dispense with governmental fiqh in its attempt to administer maximal justice in the stage of development.

Key words: governmental fiqh, justice, the Islamic Revolution, minimal justice, medium justice, maximal justice.


The Voluntary Property of Social Justice and Its Effects in the Noble Quran

Hassan Sadeghi


In addition to the innate sense and rational evidence, some Quranic verses prove that man has free choice to perform acts, one of the most important of which is administering social justice. This principle has different effects, and the necessity of attempting to administer social justice and be free from social oppression can be referred to as one of the most important of these effects.

Using a descriptive-analytical method, the present paper investigates the voluntary property of social justice in the Quranic verses. It also explains its important effects by citing evidence from the Qur'an, and criticizes Ash'arites' views particularly the idea of determinism in acts and social justice as one of the main instances of their thoughts.

Key words: free choice, determinism, social justice, social oppression, duty.

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