ABSTRACTS

The Manifestations and Effects of Remembrance of God


Ayatollah Mohammad Taqi  Misbah

Abstract

The present paper expounds one of the supplications of Imam Sajjad (peace be upon him) about the effects of remembering God. Man’s heart and soul are the center of emotions including love. Man is attached to and loves the things that appeal to him. This love has a longitudinal hierarchy. The highest stage is “Walah (love-madness)” and “Hiyam (wander lust)”. “Walah” is a kind of bewilderment resulting from extreme love and “Hiyam” is a state in which one goes mad, wanders around near the beloved's residence because of his overwhelming love, thinks of none but his beloved, and forgets all about his own existence. Prophet Ibrahim is a perfect example of how to love God. The lower stage is realized through supplication, seeking nearness to God and infallible Imams (peace be upon them). Some love Imam Hussein and Imam Ali (peace be upon them) so much that they are ready to sacrifice their lives for the love of them.

 

Key words: love, affection, valeh (love-mad), hiyam, tranquility, remembrance of God.

 

The Nature of Religious Government according to Ayatollah Misbah and Sheikh Fadlulah Nuri

Abulfazl Zokaei

Abstract

There has been much debate about the political thoughts of Islamic scholars and necessity of accepting the religious jurist's governance. For example, some of the researchers accuse such a jurist like ''Sheikh Fadlulah Nuri '' of supporting the kings. Some other believe that the theory of "guardianship of religious Jurist" is a recent innovation. Using a descriptive-analytic method, this paper which is based on a historical and library-based study, aims at recognizing the nature of religious government and sovereignty in Shia world according to the view of two leading faqihs: Ayatollah Misbah and Sheikh Fadlulah Nuri. Ayatollah Misbah, an ideological theorist of the Islamic Revolution, and Sheikh Fadlulah Nuri, the initiator of the legitimate constitutional governance in Qajariy period, both emphasize on the necessity of adhering to the "guardianship of religious Jurist" and establishing an Islamic government. Sheikh Fadlulah Nuri advocates the possibility of exercising authority by a Muslim jurist consult in the form of legitimate constitutional governance if possible, not it desired. Ayatollah Misbah, taking in to consideration the conditions of his period, sees that the Muslim jurist can exercise authority in the frame of the separation of powers in the Islamic Republic of Iran and have wide choices.

 

Key words: government, state, religion, sovereignty, guardianship, religious jurist.

 

 

The Effect of the Islamic Revolution of Iran on the Celebrity Status of Soft Power in International Relation

Hadi Shojaee – Manuchehr Mohammadi – Mohammad Javad Norouzi

Abstract

Identifying the diverse sources of power and the way they have been used throughout the history has led to the appearance of new forms of power.

In the latter half of the twentieth century, such factors like the development of public opinion, strengthened position of culture in the area of international relations and ,generally speaking , high cost of war, have  contributed to the development of  a new approach to power, presently known as “soft power”. According to many revolution theorists, the Revolution of the Islamic Republic of Iran’s relying on the nation’s values and beliefs is behind the celebrity status increased the importance of “culture” in international relations, which in turn, made the strategic move  of countries tends towards using soft power in pursuing their goals. This paper investigates the role of the Islamic Revolution of Iran in this strategic change and the four basic functions of the Islamic Revolution of Iran in this respect for example, the revival of religion and spirituality.

Key words: the Islamic Revolution, culture, soft power, international relations.

 

A Comparison between Islamic Globalization and Western Globalization

Sayyed Mahdi Sayyedian

Abstract

Having dominated the media, the West claims that globalism is prevailing and keeps getting ahead in this regard. However, there are fundamental differences between Islam and the West in their definition of this concept. Different ideas are introduced by Islam and the West about the nature of the universe, man, goal and religion. Basically, religion in the western culture lacks comprehensiveness and it does not consider social and political matters related to religion. Therefore, according to the intellectual and practical principles of the West, the religion cannot be referred to when the issues of globalization and global village are discussed. Using an analytical - descriptive method, this paper seeks to bring out the differences between Islam and the West regarding the fundamentals, goals, principles, strategies, rules and practical measures for resolving the problems of the universe and man. The aim of western globalism is to give rise to the secularism, materialism, profit-centeredness and welfare-demanding but the Islamic type of globalism is intended to achieve sublimity and man's prosperity on material and spiritual levels.

 Key words: globalism, globalization, fundamentals, strategy, Islam, the West.        

 

A Review of the Political Thoughts of Sayyed Jamal al-din Asad Abadi and Imam Khomeini (may Allah be pleased with him).

Sayyed Ezatollah Ahmadi

Abstract

Sayyed Jamal al-din Asad Abadi and Imam Khomeini (may Allah be pleased with them) two great Islamic thinkers, who made great efforts to unite the Islamic world and stood firmly against domestic autocracy and foreign colonialism. In order to accomplish this goal, they sought to reform and change the manner of governing in the Islamic world. However, historical findings report that in spite of Sayyed Jamal's great influence on thinkers and Islamic scholars who came after him, he was unable to reform the governance in Islamic world in his life time, but Imam Khomeini managed to topple the regime and establish the Islamic Republic of Iran. Using a library – analytical method, the present paper investigates some of the political thoughts of these two thinkers and takes a probing look at Sayyed Jamal's failure and Imam Khomeini's success in this regard. The findings indicate that the theoretical gap in the political system is among the main causes of the failure Sayyed Jamal's failure in reform movement.

Key words: reforms, Sayyed Jamal, Imam Khomeini (may Allah be pleased with him), government, unity, awakening, autocracy, colonialism.    

 

The Elements of Legitimacy of Sovereignty from the View of the Holy Quran

Mahdi Akbari, Amirreza Ashrafi, Hossein Arjini

Abstract

One of the fundamental issues of political philosophy in Islam is the question of components of legitimacy of sovereignty. In this paper, “legitimacy” means rational justification of “exerting authority and obedience” and its components means the elements according which a ruler or rulers of a society enjoy the right of issuing a command and of being obeyed. Given the fact that divine sovereignty is explained in terms of creation and legislation in the Holy Quran, the present paper, using a thematic interpretation method, refers to the Qur'anic verses and reviews such elements as “inherent superiority”, “real authority and ownership”, “infallible science”, and “the right of manipulation in the realm of government” which are, according to the Quran among the components of the right of sovereignty.

Key words: legitimacy, sovereignty, philosophy, ownership, authority, science, governance.

 

 The Limitations of the Relations of Muslims with Non-Muslims in Martyr Motahhari’s View

Zahra Pourrostaee Ardakani, Mohammadali Mohiti Ardakan

Abstract

One of the most important issues about human relations in Islam is determining the criterion of the relations between Muslims and non-Muslims. Using a descriptive method, the present paper seeks to expound the nature of the relations between Muslims and non-Muslims by referring to Martyr Motahhari’s works. It concludes that in Islam moderation is a key for determining the criterion of the relations between Muslims and non-Muslims, so that it neither gives a general command to sever all relations nor gives a permission. In order to preserve individuals’ religion, Muslims’ interests and dignity and independence of Islamic society, Islam has set limits on the relations with non-Muslims regarding marriage, friendship, giving aid and magnanimity, teaching and learning, cultural and trade exchange, and coexistence. Furthermore, strict rules are observed relating to non-Muslims' participation in Islamic government, and their holding important posts and positions, and their authority over Muslims is totally rejected.

Key words: Motahhari, Islam, Muslim, non-Muslim, limitation, infidel.