The Characteristics of True Shi’ahs

Ayatollah Allamah Mohammad Taqi Misbah


This article is an exposition of the characteristics of true Shi’as in the eyes of the Infallible Imams (pbuh). What, in fact is the criterion for discerning true believers from false believers? We cannot assume that all those who believe in God are believers, or that due to one’s friendship of Imam Ali's (Commander of the Faithful) one is considered as Shi’a. Sometimes we suppose that we are true Shi’a, but when we make a study about the true Shi'as as shown in the narrations and conduct of the Prophet's household (pbuh), we find that we are far from being true Shi’a. Here Satan tries to mislead us and shows us the wrong way to success and prosperity. In brief, true Shi’as are those who perform their timely prayers in the appointed time, who are committed to preserving the secrets of the Prophet's household (pbuh) and who feel sympathy for their religious brothers and are beneficent toward them.  


Key words: the Shi’a, the Prophet's household (pbuh) , feeling sympathy for.

The General Structure of Moral System in Islam

Sayyed Ja'far Musavi Gilani- Mohammad Rasul Ruzbeh


Islam is a tree which is rooted in monotheism. Morality is the fruit of this huge tree. Therefore, according to Islam, morality has a religious aspect. Islamic morality covers such a wide range that it not only answers the fundamental moral questions, but also exhibits the perfect and ideal man in relation to psychological characteristics and behavioral patterns and offers the modus operandi for achieving human perfection and highest spiritual stations. This research, which represents a theoretical study of Islamic morality, seeks to offer structural explanation by first explaining the normal viewpoint of Islamic morality and then mentioning and demonstrating its theoretical principles.


Key words: moral system, normal viewpoint, moral perfection, virtue centeredness, teleology.

Allamah Tabatabai, a Realist Philosopher and Moral Absolutist

Abbas Geraei


One of the basic questions about ethical propositions is: do ethical propositions represent an objective reality and reveal the existence of real relationship or do they have no real source and they, irrespective of order and recommendation, feeling and taste, agreement and contract, do not talk of reality? Realists believe in the real source of moral principles but non-realists reject the existence of such a source. One of the results obtained from this debate is that realists adopt absolutism of moral principles and non-realists advocate relativism in ethics. This research shows through an analysis-descriptive method that because Allameh Tabatabaei believes in the real source of moral principles, he is considered as a realist philosopher and a moral absolutist.

Key words: moral concepts, moral propositions, ethical realism, ethical non-realism, ethical absolutism, ethical relativism.

 The Relationship between Allamah Tabatabaei's Moral Views and Ethical Realism

Taqi Mohader


The question of realism and non-realism is among the most important issues of philosophy of ethic, according to which the different ethical schools can be classified in terms of their major differences.  This paper investigates the relationship between Allamah Tabatabaei’s moral views and ethical realism. The main question that arises is: “Is there any correlation between the view of conventionality of ethical concepts and non-realism of ethics?”  If there is no correlation between them, how can we explain ethical realism according to the theory of conventional perceptions? Using a descriptive-analysis method, this research concludes that, ought tos and ought not tos, according to conventionality theory, are not pure construction but they are construction based on reality, and it is possible to make s study of the very realities and then present evidence to prove them.


Key words: realism, Allamah Tabatabaei, conventional perceptions, ethical ought tos and ought not tos.

The Relationship between Ethics and Politics: a Review of Omayyad’s Machiavellian Approach

Rahim Dehgan Symkani


The main concern of this research is to investigate the similar views and similar features of two intellectual trends; i.e Omayyad and Machiavelli and how they look at ethics and politics. The paper seeks to prove that just as Omayyad’s political principles do not correspond with the pure Islamic politics, Machiavellian politics dose not conform with the Islamic view on ethics and politics. Omayyad and especially Mo’awiyah, whose political principles were based on intimidation expressed through killing and looting, delusive promises, threats, attributing lies to the righteous and satirizing ethical rules, in politics, followed a sort of policy which Niccolo Machiavelli(1527-1469) later theorized. Given the position of ethics in politics according to Machiavellian approach, this paper seeks to investigate and criticize Omayyads’ behavior and attitude towards this problem. The method which this paper uses to refer to Machiavellian views and Omayyad’s function is documental and descriptive- analytic.


Key words: Machiavellism, Omayyad, Moa'viyeh, ethics, politics, government, authority.

Filipaphot and the Relation between Ethical Goodand Natural Good

Aflaton Sadeghi


The history of ethics based on virtue goes back to the time of Plato and Aristotle. Currently, Filipaphot, like Aneskomp, McIntire and Mordake, tried to revive the philosophy of virtue-based ethics. Phot seeks to prove that virtue and ethics based on virtue have a real basis; a notion which represents a challenge to the theories about realism in temporary philosophy of ethics. He considers good as a part of reality and emphasizes on the conventional meaning of good. He thinks that good is a specific quality or one of the special functions of a living creature. The main concern of this research is to see how far he has been successful in accomplishing this objective and removing non-realistic challenge.  This paper seeks through a descriptive-analytic method to investigate Filipaphot's ethic of virtue and reviews his theory about natural normalization. This paper concludes that although Filipaphot and his followers have succeeded to attract people’s attention to the virtue-based approach, should be able to responsible he some of the criticisms directed to him in this concern.


Key words: Filipaphot, ethical goodness, natural goodness, virtue ethic, natural normalization.

A Comparative Study of the Ethical Thoughts of McIntire and Pincufs

Hassan Mohiti Ardakan


McIntire and Pincufs are considered among the main philosophers who revitalized the tendency to virtue. The theories of these two philosophers are considered important not only because they contributed to revitalizing the tendency to virtue but also contributed to criticizing rival’s views. Undoubtedly, comparing between the different accounts of the tendency to virtue, including the two above mentioned theories can help in the better understanding of the claim and evidence of the tendency virtue and also its sphere. Reviewing the ethical thoughts of McIntire and Pincufs, this paper makes a comparison between the view of these two philosophers. The research results show that although they have a lot in criticizing the rival’s views, and in their advocacy of and attempting to promote the tendency to virtue, McIntire and Pincufs have major disagreement over some issues. The main differences between them are: McIntire is an anti-liberalist while Pincufs is a liberalist, McIntire is a reductivist but Pincufs is an anti-reductivist, and McIntire is a unicit whereas Pincufs is a pluralist. Also, unlike Pincufs, McIntire insists on the role of society as a factor responsible for establishing man’s identity and history as a determining factor in understanding the meaning of virtue.


Key words: McIntire, Pincufs, tendency to virtue,  unicism, pluralism, reductivism.

The Relationship between Observing Labour Ethics and Maturity of Business Intelligence Systems

Mohammad Hossein Ronaghi- Mohammad Mosakhani


Nowadays, using business intelligence systems by organizations has turned into a competitive advantage and a necessary means for decision-making. Recognition of the factors which effect business intelligence in an organization will lead to a more successful management and safer investment. This research aims at investigating the relationship between the dimensions of labour ethics in an organization and the levels of maturity of business intelligence systems. So a research in a kind of causal–survey was conducted on employees from 37 organizations of different industries which use business intelligence systems. The statistical population includes 465 managers and employees who were randomly chosen. Geranjeri’s test Variance’s analysis test was used for testing the hypotheses. Among the research results which are worth mentioning are the existence of a one-sided causal relation and effect of moral issues including preserving ownership, commitment, confidentiality and responsibility on the level of the maturity of business intelligence systems.


Key words: maturity of business intelligence systems, labour ethics, commitment, trust.

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