The Distinctive Features of Abstainers in the Commander of the Faithful’s Sermon about the Pious Based on a Narration by Nauf Bokali

Ayatollah Allamah Mohammad Taqi Misbah


This article exposes the characteristics of the pious and abstainers in the light of the words of the Commander of the Faithful, Imam Ali (pbuh).  The aim behind creating man is worshipping God and being His servant. God has created man and made the worship of Him and obedience and servanthood to Him incumbent upon man. God Almighty has assigned provision to all His servants in lawful (Halal) way. If one makes unlawful (Haram) provision, one will be deprived of lawful (Halal) provision and be chastised.

The Glorified God has provided man with mind so that he may use it as a guide it is not capable of uncovering what is really good.  Therefore, He has made rules and regulations for man to follow and achieve welfare, although man has free will in this regard. The Glorified God has never assigned to man onerous duties, but the devil always tempts him and tries to prevent him from performing his duties. In this case man’s free will, guided by inner intellect and divine inspiration, shows the way for achieving welfare.

Key words: knowledge, faith, the pious, duty.

A Review of the Implication of the Verse of Mithaq(Convention) to Man’s Natural-Intuitive Knowledge of God with Emphasis on Allamah Misbah’s View

GholamAli Azizikiya


One of the ways of knowing the Glorified God is intuitive knowledge of Him. The Holy Qur’an points in some verses to this kind of knowledge. Muslim scholars including interpreters of the Qur’an have presented many views about the meaning of the verses relating to this issue.  Using an analytical method, the present study seeks to investigate the most important of these views, emphasizing on Ayatollah Misbah’s view on the interpretation of the two verses of Surat A’raf (172 and 173), and it comes up with the following results: the verses in Surat al-A’raf are indicative of the principle of man’s encounter and intuitive knowledge of God, but its characteristics, time and place is neither known to us nor mentioned in the verse. Also, the narrations of the Prophet’s household (pbuh) emphasize on the personal aspect of intuitive knowledge to which the stated verses refer. Man’s intuitive knowledge of God is not more than his limited existential capacity, and he can never be acquainted with the essence of God. Apart from the essence of God, man has intuitive knowledge of such attribites, like His being a Creator, Lord and Provider.

Key words: theology, presential theology, intuitive knowledge of God in the Holy Qur’an, world of pre-existence, Ayatollah Misbah.

The Foundations of Divine Pardoning

Mehdi Ghasemi Firoozabadi


Divine pardoning and forgiveness are based on the attributes of divine perfection. These attributes are the very foundations of divine pardoning. Based on the Quranic research and applying the theological principles of Imamiyah, this paper seeks to extract the foundations of divine pardoning and recognize the function or functions of each of these foundations pardoning divine. Then, it explains the relations among these foundations which verify God's pardoning. The research results show that love, wisdom, mercy, justice, knowledge, bounty and ownership are among the most important foundations of divine pardoning to which the Quran refers. Each of these foundations has different fundamental functions in the question of divine pardoning. The foundations of divine pardoning have a kind of relations with each other which contribute to receiving pardon. Although God's omniscience is the source of wisdom, "wisdom" governs mercy, bounty and divine Providence. Besides, "mercy" is a fundamental basis for God's pardoning, although it is itself rooted in the special love of God to His servants who are eligible for pardon.

Key words: foundations, pardoning, wisdom, mercy, knowledge, ownership, providence.

The Position of Revelation in Identifying Religious Beliefs

Morteza Madahi


Identifying religious beliefs depend on one’s knowledge of the means and sources of inferring them. Reason, nature (Fitrah), intuition, revelation and Sunnah(tradition) are among the sources of inferring religious beliefs. In the inference of religious beliefs, one should have a clear idea about their position and the way of holding them. The aim of this paper is to show the position of the sources of transmitted sciences including revelation and tradition in identifying religious beliefs. To what extent can we rely on the sources of transmitted sciences for discovering beliefs? And, given the fact that the authenticity of the very transmission needs to be confirmed, which group of the beliefs which are known through transmission is acceptable? Using an analytical and descriptive method, this paper, considering the requirements of authentication, seeks to explain how revelation and the transmitted narrations can be efficient for identifying religious beliefs, without resting on the principle of God’s existence and prophethood regarding every religious belief.      

Key words: religious belief, beliefs, single individual narration, authenticity, identifying the belief.

The Position of Intellectually Weak and Oppressed People in the Day of Judgment

Muhammad Ali Youssef Zadeh & Qasim Javadi


There have always been questions regarding the fate of the intellectually weak and oppressed in the hereafter. Answering this question can both shed light on this issue and change the perspective of those who treat the other people believing in non-divine religions with contempt, and consider themselves as the people of salvation and the others as the people of hell. Since this discussion is derived from tradition, we answer this question with reference to the Quran and hadith, using a descriptive–analytical method. In the Quranic verses and traditions, different fates are mentioned for intellectually weak people, such as trying them in the resurrection day, the promise of divine blessing, dependence on their deeds, being assigned to the will of God, or being a  servant for the people of paradise. It can be concluded that these different fates depend on how they have become oppressed. Besides, their positions may vary in different stages of the judgment day.

Key words:  intellectual oppression, the Quran, hadith, resurrection, salvation.

The Status of Imam in Sheikh Mufid's Thoughts

 Mohammad Hossein Faryab


Status in this paper means duties and tasks. Since Imam has a global leadership over the universe, there are some status and tasks defined for him. There are different opinions as to what exactly are the duties and tasks of Imam in the system of existence and legislation. Sheikh Mufid is a great Shiite theologian. Knowledge of his views can greatly help understand the Shiites theology in the great school of Baghdad in the fourth and fifth centuries. Using a descriptive –analytical approach, this paper aims to explore his views in this regard by comprehensively studying all the aspects of Sheikh Mufid works. Based on the most important findings, Sheikh Mufid has specific theories on Imam’s existential duties, but his views on the legislative duties of Imam are consistent with the prevalent views in the present era.


Key words: Sheikh Mufid, Imam, Imam’s duties, existence, divine legislation.

The Wahhabis’ Attitude towards Consecration and the View of the Qur’an and (Sunnah) Traditions

Hamzeh Ali Bahrami  &  Ali Taqavi


Consecrating the shrines and graves of prophets and friends of God is one the main issue of practicing monotheism. There is a broad consensus among Muslims on the totality and principle of consecration. Until today, no one has opposed the principle of consecration, but with the emergence of Salafi-Takfiri movement and named ‘’Wahhabism’’ following Ibn Taimiyeh’s views, there has been a hostile attitude towards Muslims’ rituals, especially Shi’ahs’, ritual of consecrating the holy shrines and graves of prophets and friends of God. The emergence of Wahhabism, has brought about such effects like accusing Muslims of heresy and the ruin of the shrine and the graves of prophets and friends of God. The question which arises is, whether the view of Wahhabis has a legal ground. Using a comparative-analytical method, this research aims at investigating and evaluating Wahhabis’ belief by referring to the Qur’an, (sunnah)traditions  and the life of the Companions. This investigation indicates that the ritual of consecration is based on evidence cited from the Qur’an and narrations. The Prophet’s Companions used to consecrate the things associated with the Prophet during the life and prophet approved of their behavior, they also consecrated them after his demise. This research shows that; firstly, the bases of Wahhabism and Ibn Taimiyeh’s view incorrect, secondly, their religious verdicts contradict the Holy Qur’an, (Sunnah)traditions, and the life of the Companions of the Prophet and leaders of four Sunni schools.


Key words: consecration, the Sunnis, Wahhabis, Ibn Taimiyeh, the Qur’an, (Sunnah) traditions, the lifestyle of the Companions.

The Reality of Knowledge, Wisdom and Soul from the Viewpoint of Ayatollah Morvarid and a Critique of his View

Saeed Bagheri & Seyyed Mahdi Imami Jome



The question of "entity of knowledge, wisdom and soul" has been the subject of speculation for centuries and even before Islam. Muslim philosophers such as Farabi, Ibn Sina, Suhrawardi and Mulla Sadra have studied the issue greater than that of the others. Along with philosophers, another group, currently known as "separatists" who extremely criticize philosophy, hold different views about the reality of knowledge, wisdom and soul from that of philosophers. Ayatollah Sheikh Hasan Ali Morvarid, one of scholars who espouse separatism, expresses his views on the reality of knowledge, wisdom and soul in his book titled "Tanbihat Hol Al- Mabda va Al- Ma’ad". Using an analytical-descriptive method, first this paper tries to fully investigate his claims and then, to criticize them. In the end, considering the criticisms and objections raised against Ayatollah’s claims and their ill effects, this paper sheds light on the wrong interpretation.


Key words: reality of knowledge, wisdom and self, criticism of Ayatollah Morvarid's views, separation school.

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