Moderation of Real Shiah

Ayatollah ‘Allamah Mohammad Taqi Misbah


The present paper offers an explanation about moderation as one of characteristics of the real Shiah. As one of the Shiah’s characteristics moderation itself has some criteria and has some role in all aspects of life. Moderation is a relative thing which differs in far as individuals and various strata of society and different times and places are concerned, and it is measured by the conventions of the time. Making available whatever is possible for most people is considered moderation, otherwise, it is considered extravagance. Extravagance and wastefulness, parsimony and going to extremes are regarded by the Qur'an and the traditions as blameworthy acts. Even in acts of worship such things are considered blameworthy. In clothing and food, manners and morality, human character, one is recommended to be moderate; therefore, one has to do one’s routine duty properly according to one’s existential dimensions and  in consistency with them. Both excessiveness and lack of diligence are regarded despicable. Therefore, one has to do one’s duties according to the needs of his capability and existential dimensions of his capabilities, so that all of them maybe  observed and having no place for any kind of conflict.

Key words: moderation, moderation, moderation in characters and behavior, moderation in morality and behavior.

The Role of Human Dignity in Social and Moral Education in the Light of Martyr Motahari,s View

Mohammad Najafi- Fatemeh Ramezani- Ehsan Yavari


Islam emphasizes on the high status and dignity of man’s personality because, in Islam, man possesses some inherent assets, such as divine spirit, free will, most appropriate creation, position of God’s vicegerency, and the like. Not all creatures have access to such assets, but all human beings do have them, regardless of their gender, race and age. The present study seeks to answer this important question: ‘’what is the role of man’s inherent dignity in his social and moral education’’? Using a descriptive- analytical method, it tries to answer this question in the light of Martyr Motahari,s views. The research results indicate that the trainee’s awareness of his/her own human and God-given dignity and, in turn, his/her belief and insistence on preserving and promoting this existential asset has its influence on regulating  and improving social relationships , interactions, maintain acceptable standards of behavior and then realizing moral and social education.

Key words: dignity, moral and social education, Martyr Motahari.

The Aspects of Moral Behavior in the Lifestyle That Prepares the Ground for the Reappearance of the Promised

Hassan Najafi


Because of the divine man-making knowledge of Shiism, and its special worldview and specific customs and instructions about all aspects of human life, Shiism seeks to develop a certain way of life, in which the right path to the final destination is followed with the coming of the savior of mankind. The aim of this paper is to examine the moral aspects of the lifestyle that prepares the ground for the appearance of the promised Imam. The research method is descriptive -analytical. In order to gather the data necessary for achieving the objectives of the research, the available hadith resources relevant to the subject in question were collected by using a note-taking method and analyzed by using a qualitative method. In addition to explaining the nature of the lifestyle that prepares the ground for the appearance of the promised Imam, as a manifestation of the Islamic lifestyle that provides the individual and community with the necessary conditions for accepting the guardianship (Wilayah) of Imam Mahdi (as), the paper investigates the epistemological structure of moral behavior focusing on four aspects: divine, individual, social and environmental.

Key words: morality, moral behavior, four-fold aspects, lifestyle, preparing the ground for re-appearance.

Moral Education according to Khajeh Nasir al-Din Tusi with Emphasis on the Principles and Objectives

Mohammad Najafi- Somayeh Kiani- Raziyeh Emami


Moral education and improvement means adorning the soul with virtues and purifying it from vices, and using some methods for fostering good actions and eliminating vices. The study of moral education can be an important step in defining the structure of moral system represented in moral education. Using a library- based descriptive- analytical method, the paper seeks to review Khajeh Nasir al-Din Tusi,s view about morality and their implications for moral education, in two parts: principles and goals. Khjeh Tusi’s moral system is based on self- knowledge and the balance between powers. The most important result of this research is identifying the foundations of moral education, including the nature and reality of man, the balance of the powers of soul and its ability in achieving true perfection and accomplishing the objectives of moral education, including the ultimate, the intermediary and the educational goals.

Key words:  morality, moral education, foundations of moral education, goals of moral education, improvement, soul, Khajeh Nasir al-Din Tusi.

The Status of Natural Tendencies in Islamic Education in the Eyes of Allamah Tabatabai

Ali Naghi Faghihi and Hassan Najafi


As one of the most fundamental debates in the Islamic philosophy of education, the question of ‘’innate disposition’’ has been the special concern of Allamah Tabatabai. By accepting ‘’innate disposition’’ as the religious statement of man’s common nature and its main role in the realm of Islamic education departments, this paper seeks to offer a picture of the effective natural tendencies in education, adhering to the views of this contemporary philosopher. In this research a descriptive-analytical method is used, and in order to collect the data for achieving the aims of research, the available and related sources are collected by using the note-taking forms of the sources and they are analyzed by using qualitative methods. A review of Allamah Tabatabai’s views reveals that he divides natural tendencies into the four types: perceptive, divine, free will and power. These tendencies are the potentialities which contribute to developing an educational system coincident with Islamic teachings, which guarantee man’s welfare and prepare the ground for living an agreeable life.

Key words: innate disposition, natural tendencies, Islamic education, Allamah Tabatabai.

The Stages of Qur’anic Education in the View of 'Allameh Tabatabaei in Al-Mizan Commentary

Fatemeh Bahremand, Mohammad Reza Sharafi, Narges Sajjadiyyeh


'Allameh Tabatabaei’s views on introducing the educational status of the Quran and how they influence man’s evolutionary movement are among the important questions, and they seem necessary for developing any education program centred on the Quran. Nevertheless, no attempt has been made to do research on Qur’anic education centred on the ideas presented in the commentary of this contemporary commentator with a phase look. The present framework can contribute, to some extent, to demonstrating the Qur’an-centered educational prospects. Based on technical, verbal-formal analysis with emphasis on the context”, the present paper tries to expound some of 'Allameh Tabatabaei’s thoughts about Qur’an commentary with the aim of presenting a picture of the phases of the Qur’anic education in question. The main finding of this study shows that it is understood from Allameh Tabatabaei's view centred on verse 57 of Surah "Yunus" that Qur’anic education undergoes four phases: awakening (preaching), therapy (healing), showing the right way (right guidance), and being compassionate (mercy).   furthermore, the emphasis on guidance as the aim of the Qur'an and its positive mode,  the role of the ground and negative position of the first and second stages and looking at mercy as a purpose-like phase contribute to recognizing the status of each stage. The analysis of these phases shows that self-refinement has precedence over refining extrovert behavior. Building a happy life in the light of these phases will not be possible without referring to the Quran.

Keywords: Qur’anic education, 'Allameh Tabatabaei, Al-Mizan Commentary, preaching, healing, mercy, guidance

The Characteristics of a Religious Society and the Role of Education in Its Creation and Continuity

Abdolreza Zarabi


The aims of this research are to display an image of an ideal religious society by pointing out its special characteristics and the role of religious education in its creation and maintaining and continuing it. To achieve this aim, first, the concepts of ‘’religion’’, ‘’education’’, ‘’society’’ and ‘’ religious education’’ are explained, and then, the role and function of religious education in creating and continuing the religious society are investigated. The research is based on an analytical-documentary and library-based method. The research findings show that the religious society is a society whose social relation network includes economic, political, legal and cultural relations based on the values governing that religion and its teachings. Such a society can have religious and monotheistic education, when every institution and effective social factor can have an air of divinity and its perform their religious and monotheistic duty towards the people and society.

Key words: society, religion, religious society, education, religious education.

The Educational Effects of History in the View of Nahjul- Balaghah

Mahdi Mardani (Golestani) and Somayyeh ‘Abedi


History is one of the areas of  study on which Nahjul- Balaghah strongly stresses, and considering the guiding status of Imam Ali(PBUH), we can regard it as one of his educational methods. History is, according to Nahjul-Blaghah, an excellent source of education in Islam, and the aim of studying it is to obtain actual confirmation; that is ,education in which the facts of forefathers are carefully considered. Using an exploratory-analytical method the present paper tries to review Imam Ali’s sayings in Najul–Balaghah and discover the educational effects of studying history. It expounds the effects of history on life and point to the appropriate way of being influenced by history, making explicit the relationship between history and education. The research results which are gained from thorough investigation of and evidence supporting the educational effects of studying history, show that the study of history has many effects, like intellectual and rational development, awakening from negligence, awareness of death, piety, practical morality, modesty, asceticism, reckoning the self  and providing good examples.

Key words: effectiveness of history, the educational results of history, history and education, history in Nahj al-Balaghah, the importance of history.   

‘’This World’’ in the View of the Qur’an and the Bible and the Educational Requirements Related to It

Hamideh Farah Bakhsh and Seyyed Hamid Reza Alavi


This world is one of the basic principles of education, and recognizing its nature has an important effect on man’s life. Heavenly Books have an important role in gaining a sound knowledge of this world are very important. This research investigates the view of the Qur’an and the Bible on the common characteristics of this world.  To this end, the view of the Qur’an is compared with the view of the Bible about the characteristics of this world, and then the common characteristics of this world are recognized. Then, considering the interpretation of Qur’an and the Bible as well as the view of Muslim and Christian thinkers, this paper points out to this these characteristics. The educational requirements related to each characteristic have been identified by using a deductive method. According to the research results, the common characteristics of ‘’this world’’ in the Qur’an and the Bible are: 1. this world is delusive 2. this world is transient 3. This world is a place for sowing and the Hereafter is a place for reaping. Similarly, the educational requirements which are inferred from these characteristics include: 1. grasping the reality of the beauties in this world and restraining oneself from them 2. Dissociating oneself from this world and not considering it as an aim 3. Taking advantage of this world and making provision for the hereafter.

Key words: this world, the Qur’an, the Bible, education, Islam and Christianity.

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