The Grandeur of Servanthood of True Shi’as

Ayatollah Allamah Mohammad Taqi Misbah


This paper reviews a speech by the word of the Commander of the Faithful, Imam Ali (pbuh) concerning the servanthood of the Shi’ah in the light of Nauf Bekali’s narration. Worshipping has two types: general and special; such rites and obligations, like prayer, fasting and Hajj which are intended to show servanthood to God represent special kind of worshipping and any work which brings man nearer to God constitutes a general kind of worshipping.

Among the characteristics of the Shi’ah are devout obedience to God and worshipping God humbly and meekly. The eyes and ears play a unique role in one’s devotion to God. The Commander of the Faithful, Imam Ali (pbuh), considers obedience to God with absolute submission and worshipping God with complete humility as the characteristics of the true Shi’ah. If one wants to have free will, one should be the owner of one’s own mind and be able to control them. Among the characteristics of the true Shi’ah is that they control their eyes and prevent them from committing misdeeds and sins. The simplest way to control one’s mental power and gain a conscious and strong will is to control one’s eyes and ears.

Key words: act of worship, the Shi’ah, the worship of the humble.

Classification and Analyzing the Definitions of Religion

Seyyed Mohammad Reza Musavi Faraz


Several definitions are presented about religion by philosophers of religion. Using a descriptive-analytic method, this paper deals with some of these definitions. This study aims at modulation and classification of these definitions to analyze them easier. Difficulty or impossibility of defining religion is discussed in this paper. One of the factors of difficulty of defining religion is the great variety of religions in different societies. Definitions of religion are either missionary or factual. The factual definitions include; rationalist, emotional, pragmatic, symbolist, reductionist, functionalist, intra religion and compound. On the other hand, the definitions of religion can be philosophical, psychological, sociological or phenomenological. Following each category one or more definitions are assessed. The study ends with presenting a selected definition and analyzing it.

Key words: definition of religion, different definitions of religion, rationalist definitions, emotional definitions, pragmatic definitions.

The Inevitability Resurrection from the Viewpoint of the Holy Quran

Ali Mohammad Ghasemi


Resurrection is one of the most important principles which has allocated most verses of Quran after monotheism and it shows the importance of faith in resurrection. Such a faith is the reason that the Divine laws are being carried out. Hence creating doubt and weakening religious beliefs is a clear indication of an struggle to breaking one of the important pillars of religion, the fact remains that to strengthen the religious aspect of adolescents 'life, inadvisability of doubt in resurrection from the viewpoint of Quran must be analyzed. The Holy Quran considers Resurrection unquestionable and sometimes in response to excuses and negative reactions of Resurrection deniers, clearly considers resurrection as an obvious issue. In addition to extracting related title from the Holy Quran, in this paper, those verses which indicate the titles are arranged in an orderly fashion. And in addition to using the commentators, analyzes some of their views.

Key words: Resurrection, Judgment day, doubt, coefficient, Resurrection deniers.  

The Reality, Content, Scatter of the Book of Deeds and the Clear Judgment in the Day of Judgment

Hassan Rahmani


This paper deals with some of the questions about reckoning in the Hereafter in which the nature of the book of deed is made known, and some of the dimensions of the content of this book (including the necessity of the existence of some affairs for registering the deeds in the book of deed) and also the manner of reading the content of the book of deeds are explained. Besides, the nature of "hidden thoughts", which is part of the contents of the book of deed as well as the reality of ‘’ the scatter of books’’ are considered, and finally the idea as to who is to give the last judgment (Criteriology) is make known.

Using logical reasoning and referring to the transmitted traditions, this paper seeks to present facts about the aforementioned topics, giving the audience a clear picture of them. This paper expounds the material nature of books of deed by citing proofs from transmitted science and also shows that "the books’ scatter" refers to the outspread of books of deed and the last judgment is pronounced by God and other reckoners.

Key words: book of deed, scatter, deeds, hidden thoughts, judgment.

The Semantics and Scope of Pre-eminent Imam Station of form the Viewpoint of Theologians

Mohammad Hossein Faryab


According to Shiah and most Sunnis, the pre-eminent station is one of the prerequisites for being Imam. This issue has been repeatedly challenged in discussions between Shia and Sunnis throughout history. Using a library method, this paper seeks to examine the meaning of the pre-eminence in theologians` thoughts. On the other hand, one of the main issues about pre-eminence is the scope of Imam`s pre-eminence which is an indication of the meaning of pre-eminence. In this paper the meaning of pre-eminence is analyzed from the viewpoint of theologians, which also indicates their view on the scope of pre-eminence. The findings show that Sunni theologians paid less attention to this issue and on the other hand Shia theologians present several meanings for pre-eminence.

Key words:  pre-eminence, semantics, scope, Imam, theologians.

The Appointment of the Infallible Imam Through Divine Command in the Thought of Early Imamiyah Traditionalists, Especially Sheikh Sadooq

Seyyed Ahmad Hosseini


This paper seeks to examine the point of view of the Shi`ite early scholars regarding the divine position of Imam and their divine appointing form Ahlolbeit. Although, Imam`s divine selection is of the fundamental beliefs in Shi`ite, in criticizing the Shi`ites perspective, some scholars consider this belief as the result of a intellectual perspective of theologians of Baghdad school of thoughts on religious issues. They also believe that the early scholars, until the beginning of the fifth century, considered Imamate as an earthly issue and they considered Imam`s divine appointing as an extremist act. Using a descriptive-analytic approach, this paper seeks to consider most of the early scholar`s view like the theologians and great men of Baghdad school of thoughts. They believed that Imamate is divine and the infallibles are selected on behalf of God in the position of political and religious leaders.

Key words: divine Imamate, appointment of Imam through divine command, political Imamate, religious Imamate.

The Ontological Guardianship of Ahl al-Bayt (AS) and Its Scope

 Sayyed Mohammad Hasan Saleh


Ontological guardianship is considered one of the most important exclusive rights granted to Ahl al-Bayt (AS). Some contemporaries deny the idea that creatures can manage ontological affairs and assume that it entails exaggeration and exiting from the circle of monotheism. Conversely, a considerable group of scholars accept it and argue that it does not entail polytheism and exaggeration. Moreover, some consider this kind of guardianship to be minimal and some hold that it is maximal and say it means management of the whole world. Using a descriptive-analytical method and library-based data, this paper reviews and comments on the arguments of each of the three statements above-mentioned. The paper holds that the station of ontological guardianship, that is, Imam’s control, in its broad sense, over universe, is a reality that can be explained and accepted in line with the unity of Divine Acts and has been proved in various traditional ways. However, apart from the station of affirmation and possibility, the idea that Ahl al-Bayt have maximal influence in the sense that they are in charge of creation and the sustenance of the universe is not confirmed.

Key words: guardianship, ontological guardianship, universal guardianship, unity of Divine Acts, Divine resignation, exaggeration.

An Investigation into the Origin, Scope and Way of Exercising Ontological Guardianship by Imams in the Eyes of Kafi

Sayyed Mohsen Sajjadian & Mohammad Hussein Faryab


The question of ontological guardianship of Imams and its different aspects are among the important issues connected with of the subject of Imamate. In recent years, remarkable books were written in this regard, but given the importance of this issue and the importance of the analytical study of the traditions on it, it is perhaps, necessary to discuss this topic in the light of the traditions found in Kafi. Using a descriptive-analytical method, the present paper investigates the origin, scope and Imam's way of exercising ontological guardianship in the eyes of Kafi. The results of this study show that Imams' comprehensive knowledge of the Supreme Name and knowledge of the Book confirms the idea of their guardianship, and shows that their guardianship covers various subject areas and they sometimes exercise their ontological guardianship abruptly at the request of others.

 Key words: guardianship ontological guardianship, origin of guardianship, scope of guardianship, way of exercising guardianship, Kafi.

The Theological Thoughts of Traditionalists of Sistan throughout the Fifth Century

Mohamad Reza Piri


Sistan was one of the major thrust areas where traditionalist scholars lived in the early centuries A.D. Having theological works or hadith works, scholars have been quoting hadiths through the theological-ideological approach. In this study the history of theological thoughts of the traditionalists in Sistan, has been analyzed throughout the fifth century A.D.

The findings show that in the first and second century A.D. the traditionalists of Sistan did not have coherent theological ideas, however with the presence of Osman ibn Saeed Darami and Abudavood Sajestani, in the third century A.D. this school of thought developed. In the fourth century, the traditionalists of Sistan reached its peak by the assistance of Abu Solomon Khatabi Basti and Ibn Abi Davood and in the fifth century this idea was reinforced by Abu Nasr Sajzi. This descriptive- analytic study starts with analyzing theological books, historical books, Rijal books and Hadith books. Analyzing the data, then, this study discovers the intellectual ideas from the traditionalists in this region.

Key words: Sistan, traditionalists, theological thoughts, theological works, Jahmiyah.      

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