The Real Shias and the Excitement of Seeing God (1)

Allameh Mohammad Taqi Mesbah


This paper is an interpretation on Imam Ali`s (peace be upon him) words on the traits of the real Shias regarding the excitement in seeing God. Imam Ali (peace be upon him) states that: If God had not determined death for the Shias, before they die, from the excitement of seeing God and the reward and fear of punishment, their spirits would not be placed in their bodies for a second. These modes are due to the excitement of seeing God attaining his satisfaction. Although we believe that the best and most enjoyable assets bestowed by God are in heaven which are pledged by the Holy Quran, we change God`s satisfaction with the fleeting material pleasures. The familiarity with God and his assets and Ah al-beit causes us to be excited about seeing God.


Keywords: the excitement in seeing, heaven,  material and spiritual punishment.  

The Strategy of Imam Ali (PBUH) in Defeating Opponents in the Battle of Siffin

Seyyed Qasem Mir khalili - Ali Khalaji


From a scientific perspective, studying the strategies of Imam Ali (PBUH) in the Battle of Siffin helps us in clarifying one of the existential dimensions of the Commander of the Faithful, the political dimension. From a functional viewpoint, it results in proposing specific and defined strategies based on Alawi’s policy for addressing the political and military challenges in the contemporary world. The most important strategies of Imam Ali in the Battle of Siffin are: 1. guidance, benevolence and informing the enemy; 2. avoidance of launching the war; 3. gathering information; 4. making use of psychological operations; 5. training and deploying the army; 6. prohibiting insults to the enemy; 7. observance of manliness in war; 8. diplomatic immunity of envoys; 9. making use of stratagem; 10. being alert to the enemy; 11. resisting against the enemy and avoiding escape; 12. observing survivors' rights; 13. refraining from torture.  The present descriptive-analytical study deals with the strategy of Imam Ali (PBUH) in defeating the opponents.


 Key words: Strategy, Commander of the Faithful Ali (as), the Battle of Siffin, opponent

Quranic Spirit of Imam Hossein (peace be upon him) in Ashura Movement

Mohammad Karimi Dorcheh


One of the aspects of the manifestation of Imam Hossein (peace be upon him) Quranic spirit is in his Quranic citation in Ashura movement which shows that his movement is derived from logic of the Quran. It comes to mind that Imam Hossein (peace be upon him) Quranic citations carry valuable lessons. These unforgettable lessons are beneficiary for the mankind. Therefore, having a descriptive-analytic method, this paper aims at clarifying and analyzing these lessons for mankind. One of the most important findings of this study is Imam Hossein`s (peace be upon him) adducing to some of the specific verses of Quran in some certain situations in Ashura movement which shows these lessons and some certain lessons in order to clarify, continue and stabilize his movement. The continuance of his movement stabilizes the foundations of the religion.

Keywords: Imam Hossein (peace be upon him), Quranic spirit, Quran, Ashura movement.         

The Financial Resources and Income of the Infallible Imams (Peace be upon them)

Ruhollah Shirzad


Among the common principles in the life of the Infallible Imams is financing and addressing the needs of themselves and the Shiites. They chose some ways for earning income that they both tried to practice themselves and recommended the Shiites to practice them. Businesses and professions such as agriculture, trade and commerce, social resources such as Khums and endowments, and public resources including gifts and offerings and donations are some examples of the financial resources of the infallible Imams. Using an analytical-descriptive approach and relying on the historical and traditional sources, the present paper seeks to explain the financial sources of the infallible Imams, present a good model for introducing production strategies in order to improve the financial affairs of the Shiites and depict the religious lifestyle.


Key words: Islamic economics, financial resources of the Infallible Imams, lifestyle, economic life.

The Social History of the Shi'ite in the First Half of the Seventh Century

(After Hijrah)

 Mohammad Javad Yavari Sar Takhti


The present study deals with the social history of peoples and communities in the past. It is a new approach to historiography that, unlike the traditional style in historiography, explores the hidden layers, lifestyle, relationships and way of thinking of people in the past. Therefore, understanding people's social life requires the study of the political and social developments of that period. Given the historical developments of the seventh century, this paper investigated the social status, lifestyle, important factors and components of the social history of the Shiite in Iran and Iraq in the first half of the seventh century Hegira. In that period, in the wake of sociopolitical events and developments, the social life of the Shiites was affected by these conditions and they used social institutions such as guardianship, authority and education in order to continue their social life.


Key words: social history, lifestyle, Shiite, components, customs.

The People of the Bench in the Course of History and Quran

Hassan Ahmadian Delaviz


The current study aims at clarifying the position, features and the lifestyle of the people of the Bench and answering to some questions considering the verses of Quran and historical propositions. Data collection and a documentary method were used in this study. The people of the Bench were Early Muslims who inhabited next to the prophet`s mosque in Medina. Their main work was worshiping and most of them were poor. Due to their belonging to worshiping they left the material world. Their population varied based on immigration, marriage and housing. There are some narrations from the prophet of Islam (peace be upon him) about their excellence. Some of the interpreters believe that the verse 273 in Baqare chapter is about them. They were people of Jibha and Jihad and have accompanied the prophet in most battles.


Keywords: the people of the Bench, the prophet of Islam (peace be upon him), Medina, Al-Masjid An Nabawi, immigrants, Baqare chapter.

A Comparative Survey into the Theoretical Philosophy of History in the Viewpoint of Two Scholars of Eastern and Western Islam: Ibn Khaldun and Professor Motahhari

Musa Najafi / Alireza Javad Zadeh


Having a new approach, Ibn Khaldun discusses about the discovery of the laws that govern the human communities. On the contrary professor Morteza Motahhari has dealt with the development of the entire man`s history and has talked about the factor, orientation, purpose, essence and the criterion of the movement of history. Aside from the difference in the thought of these two scholars in distance or link to Islamic philosophy, analyzing human`s history in the terms of overall or social laws partially, the evolutionary view of history, following the Shiite or Sunni and some other affairs, in both of these views, there is the joint nature and common ground in a manner that the raised rationality goes beyond the level of the rationality of western thoughts. They would like to see themselves in the perspective of tradition or at least have the tradition in their own perspective. In the light of this truth, having passed (Ibn Roshd philosophy) and (Sadra philosophy) we can conclude that both scholars agree on the Islamic philosophy of history.

Keywords: philosophy of history, theoretical philosophy of history, laws (social and historical), movement of history, degeneration, evolution.

The Relationship between Shi’ism and Protest from the Perspective of the Orientalists; a Case Study of Wilferd Madelung

Maryam Saeidian Jozi


This study seeks to clarify the relationship between Shi’ism and protest from the viewpoint of the orientalists. To this end, the views of Madelung, a famous Orientalists, were studied. Given the fact that there has been little research conducted into this subject so far, the present documentary research used a cognitive, descriptive, and analytical approach and the method of note taking for data collection. The findings show that although Madelung agrees with other orientalists in emphasizing the role of the present Imam in the protests of the Shiite community, it has come to this conclusion through different preliminary stages. From the viewpoint of Madelung, Imami Shi’ism, at least since the time of Imam Ja’far (peace be upon him), has a constant history and a true identity. He believes that Imami Fiqh has clearly explained Shi’a denomination’s basic concepts such as Imamate. Based on Shiite Fiqh and unlike what the other orientalists believe, Madelung argues that the Infallible Imam developed and implemented all the policies including those about protest and thus made Imamate the pivot around which all affairs turned. 

Key words:  Shi’ism, protest, orientalists, Madelung.

The Role of Ibn-e- Amid in Political Development of Ale-e-Buye

Shahla Mansouri Qavam Abadi


The political, military, cultural and religious policies of the minister Abulfazl Ibn-e-Amid caused huge changes in the structure of Ale-e-Buye dynasty. Due to his important role as a minister and bureau chief,  Ibn-e-Amid had enormous influence on the developments of that period and in his own turn, employed  key measures in various areas and contributed to developing and strengthening  the position of ministry in Ale-e-Buye government. Using documentary method and the special sources of that period, the present study aims to show the role and position of Ibn-e- Amid in the structure of the political power of Ale-e-Buye. Since Ale-e-Buye rule was contemporary with Samanid, Ziyarid and Qazivid dynasties, the sources belonging to these three periods were of considerable help for the present research.

Key words: Ale-e-Buye, ministry, political power, Abulfazl  Ibn-e-Amid.

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