ABSTRACTS

Real Shias and Observing Beyond the World

Ayatollah Allameh Mohammad Taqi Mesbah

Abstract

This paper seeks to deal with the Shias observing beyond the world. Briefly, one can realize that man can understand heaven and hell in this material world, like as the prophet of Islam (peace be upon him) understood the heaven and hell at the Ascension Night, and this concept belongs to the infallibles (peace be upon them). Like mystics, sometimes Muslims observe the heaven and hell as a revelation. Also understanding the heaven and hell might mean that Muslims be so concentrated on the heaven and hell as if there is no other world, namely; the material world. They only observe the heaven and hell. What we are able to do is to concentrate on the heaven and hell that we believe them, as if we observe them. The best way to attain this position is to get accustomed with the holy Quran and think deep in the interpretations and concept of the holy Quran, in a way that when we recite the verses about the heaven and hell in the holy Quran, we think deep enough so that we are the audience of those verses.

Key words: infallibles, the hereafter, world, heaven, hell.


Religion's Legitimacy and Salvation from the Viewpoint of Allameh Tabatabaie

Seyyed Ahmad Tabatabaie Sotudeh

Abstract

Due to the plurality of the religions at the present time, and the followers` claim on legitimacy of the religions and being the last religion, two questions have busied philosophers and theologians during many years; firstly, which religion is right? Secondly, following which religion brings salvation and prosperity? We reply these two important questions in three approaches: Monopolism, pluralism (religious pluralism), inclusivism. Raising the common truth of divine religions and the inherent unity of the religions, with a modern approach, Allameh Tabatabaie alters the problem and conflict and claims that the plurality in divine religions is basically false. After destroying the base of the issue, Allameh seeks to design a new foundation in which there is only one religion. Also he brings up a new issue in salvation by suggesting the word ((poor)) about some of the followers. This study aims at clarifying Allameh Tabatabaie`s view on the rightness of the religions and suggests a new and different approach by analyzing his views.

Key words: religions, pluralism, rightness, salvation, pluralism, Allameh Tabatabie


An Inquiry into the Verses of Quran Shows the Certified Relationship between Holy Quran and Previous Divine Books

GholamAli AziziKia

Abstract

The concept of Quran being certified for previous divine books is raised in plenty of verses of the Holy Quran. Does God refer to the basic appearance of these verses that approve the whole concept of the books at the time of revelation by the concept of right? Or this basic appearance is not important? If the answer is no, what remedy is there to discover God`s intention of these verses? The interpretations of these verses are not compatible with other verses of Quran and some other need to be perfected. Using a descriptive-analytic method, this paper seeks to analyze different view in interpretation of these verses and by reference to the verses related to this subject, remarks that the intention of Quran, being right is to confirm the other divine books that are at the time of revelation.

Key words: the holy Quran and divine books, Quran and other religions, the right relationship between Quran and divine books, approving the Bible and Torah in Quran, falsification of the Bible and Torah.


Comparative Analysis of Death in Zoroastrianism and Islam with Emphasis on Avesta and Quran

Seyyed Mohammad Hajati Shouraki

Abstract

Death is a conflicting theological topic between Islam and Zoroastrianism. The current study aims at comparatively analyzing death and affairs related to it in Islam and Zoroastrianism. First a definition and description of death and affairs related to it are given, second, explaining the differences and similarities in this regard, a new analysis is presented. Similarities are: absoluteness and generalization of death and the life of the soul after death. However the differences are more; the creation of death for the ((Devil)) in Zoroastrianism and ((Allah)) as the creator of death in Islam, nastiness of death in Zoroastrianism, and goodness of death in Islam and the duty of the man in fighting with death in Zoroastrianism and the enthusiasm of a believer to death in Islam. Using a comparative-analytic method, this paper tries to present the two Holy Scriptures; the holy Quran and Avesta.

Key words: Islam, Zoroastrianism, death, devil, death angle, death creator


Analyzing the Original Sin from the View Point of the Bible

Seyyed Mostafa Hosseini

Abstract

The concept of the Original Sin is one of the most important beliefs among Christians and it has a fundamental role in the current Christianity. The context of the Bible is considered to be one of the proofs in this field. Therefore, analyzing this concept from the view point of the Bible is of great importance. Among the contexts used in the Bible that deal with the Original Sin, the section 5:12 ((epistle to the Romans)) has an important position and it is remarkable for many Christians theologians. The results show that in addition to the responses given to these contexts, there are some other interpretations of the contexts of the Bible that are not compatible with the concept of the Original Sin. On the other hand, one can mention some sections of the Bible that are not compatible with this concept. The present aims at analyzing both agreeing and disagreeing contexts.

Key words: the original sin, the Bible, epistle to the Romans, Paul, Adam (peace be upon him).  


Coptic Orthodox Church and Primary Reciting of Christianity

Seyyed Mohammadhasan Saleh

Abstract

Egyptian Christians inhabited for a long time in there and they had different roles in the society throughout history. The Orthodox church of Egypt that nowadays is known as the Coptic Orthodox church abdicated from other western and eastern churches after the international Calsdon council, and continued independently. Using a descriptive-analytic method and considering the history of this church, this paper seeks to mention the most important faith and practical features. The author believes that the Coptic Church follows the specific conflicts of Christology at the time of Christian Fathers that was specifically at work between the Antioch and Alexandrian Churches. Consequently, one simplistic nature of Christology is the most important feature of this Church that is influenced by Greek theologies of Alexandrian school of thought. On the other hand, the tie between this Church and monasticism caused its continuation and persistence during the history. Also, this Church has tried to lessen its faith conflicts with the Rom Catholic Church.

Key words: Coptic, Egyptian Christians, Coptic Church, mono physicist, monasticism.


An Inquiry into the Language of Religion

Seyyed Akbar Hosseini Ghale Bahman

Abstract

Various subjects are discussed in the language of religion. For instance; truth and mendacity of religious propositions. Most of the religious beliefs can be denied or certified observably. There are many discussions to realize if the terms used for the Divine have the same meaning as they have for the creatures. Aside from the western scholars and theologians, Muslims have been dealing with this challenge as well and various views have been raised in this regard. The dominant view of Imamiyeh is intellectual share in God`s attributes. It means that the attributes used for the creator and the creature are intellectually the same; but they have levels and their reliability is graded. Using a descriptive-analytic method, this paper aims at analyzing some of the issues regarding the language of religion.

Key words: the language of the religion, meaningfulness, manifestation, analogy, purification.


The Historical Roots and the Causes of Contemporary Islamophobia

Abbas IsaZadeh

Seyyed Hossein Sharafoddin

Seyyed Hossein Akhavan Alavi

Abstract

In the last two decades, Islamophobia has been known as (fear or abhorring Islam and consequently abhorring all Muslims). This phenomenon has different aspects, such as; historical, cultural, social and political. A comprehensive understanding of it needs a multi-faceted look. Using a descriptive-analytic method and collecting data from various library sources (the historical roots and the causes of contemporary Islamophobia) are analyzed. The important historical roots include: Crusades in the Middle Ages, the Ottoman conquest and also European nation`s colonial in the 18th and 19th century AD, clarifying the causes and backgrounds of this phenomenon. There are many factors in the formation Islamophobia; not having sufficient awareness and ignorance of Islam are of the most important ones. Another major cause is the rooted fear of Islam in the west. Using various sources, in addition to these two causes, there are eleven more alternative causes mentioned at the end of the paper.

Key words: Islamophobia, Islam, west, Christianity, Crusades in the Middle Ages, antagonize.