ABSTRACTS

Real Shiites’s Inattention to This World

Ayatollah Allameh Mohammad Taqi Misbah

Abstract

The present paper focuses on the words of Amir al-Mu'minnan (AS) regarding the characteristics of real Shi'ites and their disregard for this world. Man’s belief in the fact that there is a boundary for human desires and his being not free to get whatever he wants by any means is rooted in the type of his knowledge of and attitude towards the universe. Without having an ontological monotheistic outlook on life, one cannot persuade others to do something or not do it. Liberalism is based on the world view that human life ends in this world and his life concludes with death. Therefore, all man’s pleasures end in this world and he should make the most of his life and enjoy worldly pleasures. According to divine world view, man’s life does not end in this world; an eternal abode is his ultimate destination and an everlasting life in heaven awaits him. Man has to forgo transient worldly pleasures in order to ensure everlasting bliss in the hereafter. Hence, clever and successful people do not concern themselves about this world and do not become attached to it. The souls of these people are lit up with theophany of divine light.

Key words: this world, monotheistic knowledge, material world view, asceticism.


The Perfect Man from the Viewpoint of Martyr Mutahhari and Allameh Tabataba'i

Javad Akbari Motlagh -Marzieh Fenudi

Abstract

Perfectionism can be considered as the ultimate goal of mankind, although there may be some errors in interpreting its meaning. Since man has natural inclination towards perfection, the question of the characteristics of the perfect man has been the special concern of thinkers throughout history. This research seeks to compare the views of Allameh Tabataba'i and Martyr Motahhari about the perfect man. In this research a descriptive method is used, and a comparative study of the two scholars, s views through content analysis is made. The findings suggest that the perfect man has such values as worshipping, readiness to serve others and freedom, all of which have grown within him harmoniously, and the growth of each of these values has reached its climax. The results show that there is agreement between these two thinkers about the perfect man and some disagreement about the way of understanding the meaning of "the perfect man", the possibility of knowing him and attitude towards him.

Key words: the perfect man, Allameh Tabataba'i, Morteza Motahari, anthropology, man, spirit, perfection, agreeable life.


A Demonstration of Fate and Destiny and Bada’ in Mirdamad Philosophical System

Mohammad Ali Ismaili

Abstract

Expounding the question of divine fate and destiny, their various kinds, their being essential or active and their relationship with the issue of Bada’ always been the subject of speculation and inquiry. It’s relationship with the theological issues on the one hand, and with the anthropological issues on the other hand, have added to its complexity. Mirdamad’s philosophical system provides a relatively conclusive demonstration of fate and destiny. According to Mirdamad, there are two kinds of fate and destiny: scientific and objective. "scientific fate" is the divine knowledge of things, in the sense that it is efficient cause in a collective, Unitarian and undifferentiated way. "Objective fate" is the objective existence of beings in the universe. " scientific destiny" is the divine knowledge of things, in the sense that it is efficient cause in a differentiated, multiple and gradual way. "Objective destiny" is the external existence of incidents and the universe within the material world. Using a descriptive- analytical method, this paper seeks to expound the question of “fate and destiny” from Mirdamad's perspective and address this issue and its relationship with Bada’.

Key words: fate, destiny, Bada’, everlasting existence, the age, time, Mirdamad.


Man's Role in the Actions He Performs (A Study on the Theory of Kasb)

Yazdan Mohammadi

Abstract

Concerning man's role in the actions he performs, Islamic scholars have presented different opinions. Among Muslim theologians, the Mu'tazilites believe in man’s free will, whereas determinists reject the idea of man's free will. As for the Asharites, they have developed the theory of "Kasb". Resting on theological books and texts, the present study touches on the Asharites' motivation for presenting the theory of "Kasb", and their most important rational and traditional arguments and proves that their arguments are not convincing. Also, different expositions made by Asharites about "Kasb" are explained and criticized. However, the Ash'arites' arguments are not convincing and cannot support their claims and their multiple expositions do not provide a precise idea about "Kasb". Hence, the name given the theory of "Kasb" is not consistent with its content. Consequently, the Ash'arites' efforts to confront determinism have been futile, because the theory of "Kasb" has been categorized as a theory of "determinism". As a result, all the criticism directed to the followers of determinism are levelled at the proponents of the theory of Kasb, with the exception of some Ash'arites, such as Jovini and Taftazani, whose expositions of Kasb are consistent with the Imamiyah theory which says: “it is neither determinism nor free will but something between the two.

Key words: Ash'arites, the theory of Kasb, determinism, free will.


Takfir in Shiite Traditions, Truth or Slander?!

Mohammad Ali Jaberi Arbabi

Abstract

Takfir is among the issues that has been the special concern of Muslim for a long time Ummah. Shiism has been accused of having a Takfiri nature. In many places in his book, Abdul Malik Shafei charges the Shia of being Takfiri. This research seeks to investigate the destructive effects of this charge, for example; the negative impression it leaves on the Sunnis about Shiism, and the detrimental effect it has on the unity of the Muslim Ummah. Using a descriptive-analytical method, this paper refers to a number of authentic traditions, and categorizing these traditions, it shows that the Shi'a exclude from Islam only a few Sunnis who are referred to as Nawsib (anti-Shi’ites) and consider most Sunnis as Muslims.

Key words: Islam, Shi'a, Ahlul-Bayt (as), Takfir, Sunnis.


Takfir in the Theological Thoughts of Abu al-Thana’ al-Alusi, Based on a Comparative Study of His Approach to Salafi Thoughts

Hamid Imandar- Hassan Zar Nousheh Farahani

Abstract

Jihadi Salafi’s unique definition of the concept of "Takfir"(accusing others of unbelief) and the attempts to spread it are rooted in the limited conceptual understanding of "faith", "unbelief" and the issues relating to them. One of the major efforts of Salafis efforts to reinforce their extreme views is attributing their ideas to great Sunni scholars, such as Abu al-Thana’ al-Alusi. However, when we compare Alusi’s ideology about “Takfir” with that of Salafism, we find that there is a basic contradiction between the two. Contrary to Salafism, Alusi, like Ash'arite theological school defines "faith" as "the very assent (tasdiq)" and attributes the strength and weakness of faith to assent. Expressing his determined opposition to the Salafi movement, he denies the particularity of action in the realization of the principle of faith and considers the marginality of action in the concept of "faith" as the very belief to which early pious Muslims adhered. He strongly criticizes the innumerable instances of "Takfir" among Sunni scholars and tries by citing evidence from the Quran, to point out the Takfiri interpretations presented by the Salafis. In order to confirm his hardline stance against Takfiri approach, Alusi establishes the principle of " using ignorance as an excuse " and "hermeneutics" while highlighting its conditions and legal impediments. Making a distinction between the type of "certain" Takfir and "absolute" Takfir and dividing "unbelief" into two kinds: "doctrinal" and "practical" are other examples of Alusi’s disagreement with Salafism about framing the concept of "Takfir". The present paper seeks to expound this subject and uses a descriptive- analytical method.

Key words: Alushi, Salafism, Takfir, belief, unbelief, comparative study.


Seyyed Qutob's Theological Foundations for the Political Legitimacy of Religious Government

Abbas Najafi/ Safdar Elahi Rad

Abstract

Seyyed Qutob is among the thinkers who believe in the theological nature of the idea of religious government and tries to elucidate the theological principles of religious rule according to the traditions and Qur'anic verses. He believes that the right to form a government and lay down laws according to which the community affairs are run belongs to God, and if society is not governed according to these laws, people will live in ignorance. Seyyed Qutob argues that the only way of safeguarding the society from ignorance is establishing a religious government and adopting divine laws. He holds that, according to these theological foundations, the religious government cannot be considered legitimate unless the ruler is popularly elected. When we go through the theological foundations proposed by Seyyed Qutob relating to religious government, we find that his theory about the political legitimacy of religious government does not conform with his sound theological foundations. Using a descriptive- analytical method, this paper seeks to investigate the relationship between Seyyed Qutob's theological foundations for religious government and his theory about the legitimacy of religious government.

Key words: religious government, Seyyed Qutob, government's political legitimacy, theological foundations.


The Political Properties of "the Doctrine of Monotheism" for Explaining the Divine Legitimacy and Criticizing "Popular Legitimacy" and "Dual Legitimacy"

Amrullah Qolizade / Safdar Elahi Rad

Abstract

"Legitimacy" is among the problems with which all political systems are faced and to which they should give an appropriate response. Concerning the issue of "legitimacy", the theory of "divine legitimacy" proposed by the Islamic political system represents a challenge to the other theories about legitimacy. It is necessary to note that the theory of "divine legitimacy" is based on a "monotheistic view" and it derives its inspiration from the properties of the "doctrine of monotheism. Therefore, the doctrine of monotheism should not be considered to have an abstractive entity; it should rather be viewed as an applied doctrine. Using a descriptive-analytic method, this study seeks to prove the theory of "divine legitimacy" and criticize the theories of "popular legitimacy" and "dual legitimacy" by referring to the political properties of the "doctrine of monotheism”.

Key words: monotheism, divine legitimacy, popular support, dual legitimacy.