Some of the Requirements
Gaining Knowledge according to the Statements of Amir al- Mu’menin Ali (pbuh)


Ayatollah Allameh Mohammad Taghi Misbah


The present paper deals with the requirements of acquiring knowledge based on the words of Amir al-Mu'menin Ali (pbuh). One of the signs of the believers is that they are greedy for and insistent on learning and gaining information, and have an insatiable thirst for knowledge. Since real Shiites are aware of the value of knowledge, and believe in it, they avidly try to gain more and more knowledge and until the very last moments of their lives seek to acquire it. Those who are thirsty for knowledge, learn the materials profoundly and thoroughly and never consider things superficially. Another sign of the believers is their possession of knowledge along with patience and tolerance. A knowledgeable person who is not tolerant, cannot stand listening to, thinking and accepting the opposite opinions. In disagreements, he will jump into conclusions and make mistakes. knowledge, tolerance and patience strengthens the spirit of inquiry and makes it possible to become familiar with one’s religious duties and responsibilities, take part in discussions and choose the right opinion.

Keywords: believers, gaining knowledge, requirements of gaining knowledge, patience and tolerance.

Psychotherapy Based on the Islamic Ontology Approach:
Spirituality in the Light of Monotheism

Fahimeh Mohammadpour / MA in Clinical Psychology, Shiraz University      fmohamadpour.1212@gmail.com

Noorollah Mohammadi / Professor of Clinical Psychology, Shiraz University       nmohamadi@rose.shirazu.ac.ir

Changiz Rahimi Taqanaki / Associate Professor of Clinical Psychology, Shiraz University crahimi@hotmail.com

Received: 2017/04/28 - Accepted: 2017/12/16



Today some psychologists have come to believe that religion can help mental health. Nowadays, "existential" and "cognitive" perspectives place great importance on the role of ontology in individuals. Ontology is largely influenced by culture and religion. Islamic ontology has a unique nature, is derived from Quranic teachings and has been put forward by God, the creator of man. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to use the rich sources of the Islamic monotheistic perspective to study the principles of psychotherapy based on Islamic ontology. In this descriptive-analytic study, the authentic Islamic books and, on the top of them, the Holy Qur’an, the books attributed to the infallible Imams, and psychology books have been used. Based on the results, ontology based on the Islamic perspective describes and deals with issues such as self-esteem, perfectionism, self-knowledge, accountability and punctuality, whose roles in mental health have been proven in various studies. Ontology therapy with an Islamic approach is a therapy within an intellectual and religious framework that is appropriate to the religious context

of the community. Therefore, such treatment, which is the result of a divine paradigm, can provide mental health based on human nature.

Key words: spiritual psychotherapy, Islamic ontology, mental health.


The Comparative Approach of Positive Psychology in
“Makarem al-akhlaq” Prayer by Imam Sajjad


Maryam al-sadat Seqayat / Ph.D Student of Studies and Research on Women's Rights ,University of Religions and Denominations                                                                                                                                                          .ms1seghayat@gmail.com

Elham Najafi / Ph.D Student of Studies and Research on Women's Rights ,University of Religions and Denominations           


Akram Sha’bani / MA Student of Quran and Hadith Sciences, Osul al-Din University       shabaniaakram@com.

Received: 2017/07/02 - Accepted: 2017/11/10



"Positive Psychology" is a recent theory that has a clear effect on psychology and psychotherapy, our perception of human nature and our understanding of personality. Although there is no category called "Islamic psychology" in Islamic texts, i.e. the Holy Qur'an and the word of the infallible Imams, their teachings and points are great sources of inspiration for understanding a field of study called "Islamic psychology". On the other hand, as the last and most complete divine religion, Islam deals with all aspects of human existence. This research can be a step towards clarifying and specifying the foundations of Islamic psychology, explaining it and testing its power of confronting new psychology. The objectives of this research are to understand the theoretical and philosophical foundations of the positivist psychology approach, identify and understand the principles of positive psychology, extract and understand the theoretical foundations and philosophical themes of the prayer Makarem al-Akhalaq, understand psychology principles derived from this prayer, study the similarities and differences between the philosophical foundations of Positive psychology and the Makarem al-Akhalaq prayer. The research method is descriptive- interpretive. In the hermeneutic method, which itself is a kind of qualitative research, the researcher goes beyond the level of descriptive data and makes some interpretations.

Key words: approach, psychology, positive, Makarem al-Akhalaq.

The Use of Psychological Techniques
by Imam Hossein and his Holy Household in the Propagation of Religion


Nosrat Nilsaz / Assistant Professor at Tarbiat Modares University                                           nilsaz@modares.ac.ir

Kavous Rohi Brandeq / Assistant Professor of Quran and Hadith Sciences at Tarbiat Modares University                       14rohi@gmail.com

Marjan Shiri / PhD student of Quran and Hadith Sciences at Tarbiat Modares University Marjan.shiri@modares.ac.ir

Received: 2017/06/19 - Accepted: 2017/12/02


Throughout history, propagation has played an important role in the introduction, spread and

protection of the principles and foundations of each school, religion, party and group. One of the principles that was high on the Prophets and their executors’ agenda was the propagation of religion. Considering the role of the element of propagation and awakening in the reform of society and foiling enemies’ plots, Imam Hossein also put raising society’s awareness on his agenda. He and his holy household spread Islam through the use of various methods especially during the Ashura uprising. Meanwhile, his most prominent propagative action was lecturing and arguing with his opponents in various places. In such discussions, they used a variety of propagative methods. One of these propagative methods was the use of psychological techniques which this research seeks to investigate. The purpose of this research is to model the psychological techniques of Imam Hossein and his holy household in the field of propagation. Data was collected using a documentative and descriptive-analytical method. It is concluded that Imam Hossein and his holy household used nine psychological techniques in their arguments: repetition, transmission, confirmation, comparison, humiliation of the enemy, reverence and encouragement of the friend, knowing the audience, emotional stimulation, and attracting the attention of the audience.

Key words: Imam Hossein (PBUH), Imam Hossein’s Holy household, propagation, psychology, psychological techniques.

Explaining the Status of Gratitude and Appreciation in Islamic Teachings

Ibrahim Salarwand / MA in Psychology, IKI                                                          Salarvand.salarvand@yahoo.com

Received: 2017/07/13 - Accepted: 2017/11/09



In Islamic teachings, gratitude and appreciation are so important that there are many verses and narrations on the virtue and necessity of gratitude. In recent years, with the development of "positive psychology" discipline, this issue has been seriously considered by positive psychologists, and a lot of theoretical and field research have been devoted to it. Therefore, the purpose of the present study, which is carried out through a "descriptive-analytical" method, is to explain the factors, effects and signs of appreciation in religious teachings by comparing Islamic and psychological teachings about appreciation. The results show that, the magnitude of appreciation is reduced or increased proportional to the accurance or non-occurrence of causes. In addition to effects in the hereafter, there are material and worldly affects and the signs can be presented in three "cognitive", "behavioral" and "emotional" dimensions.

Key words: gratitude, appreciation, Islamic, positive psychology.

The Concept of "Hazm" (Prudence)
from the Point of View of Islam and Psychology

Navid Khakbazan / MA in Psychology, IKI                                                                         khakbazan90@yahoo.com

Hamid Rafi’ee Honar / PhD in Psychology, IKI                                                                      hamidrafii2@gmail.com

Received: 2017/08/20 - Accepted: 2018/01/01



The purpose of this study is to investigate the concept of "hazm" (prudence) in psychology and Islamic sources, and to determine the components and categories of this construct. The

psychological findings were collected and analyzed by exploring and explaining psychology sources. The components and categories of "hazm" were also extracted and explained by using a descriptive-analytic method based on grades "A" and "B" in the ranking of narrative books. The findings of this study show that the comprehensive concept of "hazm” means: the cognitive skill through which future consequences of events are considered in the course of past, present and future and consequently, more prudence and rationality is shown and more caution is used one’s actions in the present time. Moreover, this concept includes three main elements of “sagacity”, "Timeline" and "Conscious Action" and ten categories including sub-components. The findings can be exploited for designing educational packages.

Key words: prudence, hazm, sagacity, timeline, prognosis, providence, clairvoyance, virtue.

Investigating the Factors Affecting a Happy Class with Explaining Happiness from the Perspective of Islam and Psychology


Maryam Sharifi Darwazeh / Ph.D. Student of Curriculum Development, Isfahan University


Minoo Sharifi Darwazeh / Ph.D Student of the Philosophy of Education, Islamic Azad University of Arak         


Marzieh Sharifi Darwazeh / MA Student of Educational Management, Tehran University, Pardis Farabi            

Received: 2017/06/01 - Accepted: 2017/10/26                                                                       marziehsharifi709@gmail.com



After family, educational environment is the second environment in which a person is socialized and exposed to training. But these trainings are effective if the quality of education is judged as desirable and the students are satisfied and happy with teaching and its product, i.e. learning. The present paper deals with the roles of "teacher and his/her teaching styles," "the content of the curriculum", and "student’s learning style" as factors affecting the creation of a happy class. For collecting data, the descriptive-analytical method and library sources and articles have been used. The results of the study indicate that the use of two-way teaching styles or flexible interactions style, which belongs to the category of indirect styles, can create an atmosphere of acceptance and freedom that leads to an increase in the level of creativity and positive attitude towards others in the students. Also, if educational content is based on students’ needs, and its practical application in real life is well explained, the students will definitely be more motivated to co-operate with the teacher. In dealing with different learners, the teacher must accept that each student has a specific learning style in engaging in learning

tasks on a variety of subjects. Therefore, teacher must be prepared to deal with each student in a way that suits his/her learning style.


Key words: happiness, teacher, curriculum content, teaching style, learning style.

A Meta-Analysis of the Studies on Religion and Anxiety:
Studying the Epistemic
and Methodological Challenges of the
Published Works on Religion and Anxiety (1381-1391)


Fatemeh Marandi / MA in Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch


Mohammad Fuladi / Associate Professor of Sociology , IKI                                                                fooladi@iki.ac.ir

Received: 2017/06/23 - Accepted: 2018/01/20



The purpose of this research is to carry out a meta-analysis of religion and anxiety and examine the methodological and epistemic challenges of the two. The statistical population includes all the works about religion and anxiety, in the form of books, theses and articles published during the years 1381 to 1391. In this research, after an initial examination of the published works and excluding the resources that were outside the scope of the study, the works were carefully studied and their shortcomings and challenges in terms of methodological and epistemic criteria were evaluated. Then, the data obtained in the descriptive table and the Inferential and analytical statistics were analyzed using SPSS software. Data analysis showed that there are many methodological and epistemic challenges on the published research in the mentioned decade. Some of the epistemological challenges in this research include: a negative view of the role of religion in eliminating anxiety, a neutral view of the role of religion in eliminating anxiety, using non-authentic psychological sources, using non-authentic religious sources, inadequate documentation and misunderstanding the concept and relationship between religion and anxiety. Also, some of the methodological challenges of this research are: using either purely quantitative or purely quantitative methods; lack of convenient sampling or research sampling; lack of research questions or hypotheses.

Key words: methodological challenges, epistemic challenges, religion, anxiety, meta-analysis.