قيمت مقاله الكترونيكي: 

The Guiding and Hardworking Shiites’
Gaining Benefit from Halal Sustenance

Ayatollah Allameh Mohammad Taqi Misbah


This paper deals with the traits and signs of the pious and true Shi'ites in a great sermon by Amir al-Mu’minin (pbuh), but since the citation of these signs in the narrations of Nuf Bekali in Behar al- Anvar i is confusing and flawed, we continue the discussion in Nahj al-Balaghah and Homam’s sermon. With regard to the other signs of the true Shi'ites, Imam Ali (pbuh) says: "«وَ‌طَلَباً فِي‏ حَلَالٍ‏ وَنَشَاطاً فِي هُديً وَتَحَرُّجاً عَنْ طَمَع»‏ " (they look for halal sustenance, and are hardworking and diligent in guiding people, and are far from greed and avarice). In addition to servitude and worship, the Shiites pursue their social duties and look for halal sustenance in order to survive. However, they are never attached to the world or greedy of the temporal goods. They do not violate the rights of others or misappropriate Bayt al-Mal. Their hard work and effort paves the way for their spiritual development.

Key words: halal sustenance, work and effort, trust in God, shiites.
A Review of Some Doubts Regarding Ḥadīth al-Thaqalayn

Abdolrahman Bagherzadeh / Assistant Professor, University of Mazandaran a.bagherzadeh@umz.ac.ir

Received: 2017/10/12 - Accepted: 2018/02/14


During the history of Islam, “Ḥadīth al-Thaqalayn " has been an important document for the Shiite and a source of reference in different areas of theology, jurisprudence, hadith and history. This document has great capacities; it can be a connecting factor used for resolving the differences among the Ummah of Islam and provide the ground for the unity of Muslims. But unfortunately, due to ignorance and inattention, this great capacity has not been used properly. The main question is: what factors have led to the Islamic nation’s ignorance of this capacity? It seems that one factor concerns the doubts raised in this regard. The necessity of providing a suitable ground for making maximum use of this capacity led the authors to seek answers for some of those doubts in the present research. The research methodology is descriptive-analytical, and in order to gain better acceptance, it is documented by authoritative sources. The findings of the research indicate that the raised doubts have fundamental weaknesses, and the doubts can be resolved with a little reflection and fair consideration.

Key words: Hadith al-Thaqalain, Sahih Bukhari, Hadith of Ashabi ka al-nojum, Hadith of Iqtida to Sheikheyn.

The Relationship between Divine Wisdom
and Knowledge from the Perspective of Islamic Theology

Nasroddin Ojaqi / Assistant Professor of Islamic knowledge, Azad University of Zanjan                

Received: 2017/09/09 - Accepted: 2018/01/03                                                          nojaghi51@gmail.com


God's attributes are of particular importance in doctrinal discussions. An issue that arises in this regard is the relationship between divine attributes. Different types of relationship can be considered between divine attributes. Sometimes this relationship is such that an attribute can be used as a reason for the existence of another attribute. Theologians believe that the relationship between the attributes of divine "wisdom" and " knowledge" is of this kind, and they use the attribute of "wisdom" to prove the attribute of "knowledge" in God. While addressing the theologians’ arguments and their response to the flaws highlighted in their reasoning, this paper examines their success in showing such a relationship between divine wisdom and knowledge. For this purpose, the "library-based" and "analytical" methods have been used. It seems that in traditional theology, theologians cannot prove such a relationship with complete success, and their argument does not succeed in proving divine knowledge through divine wisdom.

Key words: divine knowledge, divine attributes, divine wisdom, teleological argument.

A Review of the Realm of Imam's Knowledge in the Light of Narrations

Amrollah Qolizadeh / MA in Religious Studies, IKI                       amrollah.gholizadeh@yahoo.com

Mohammad Hossein Faryab / Assistant Professor at IKI                                                                                  

Received: 2017/07/16 - Accepted: 2017/12/02


Despite its long history, the issue of the scope and realm of Imam's knowledge is one of the topics that is still the subject of discussion among Islamic scholars; some believe that the knowledge of Imam is finite and some others argue that it is infinite. This paper attempts to deliver an objective judgment on this issue using the traditions of the infallibles; that is, first it has studied the narrations confirming the theory of the finiteness of Imam’s knowledge, and then it has dealt with the narrations confirming the infinite nature of imam’s knowledge. After expressing the commonalities and presenting a critique, it ultimately strengthens the theory of the potentiality of Imam's knowledge.

Key words: knowledge, Imamate, Imam's knowledge, realm of Imam's knowledge.

A Theological Outlookon the Criterion for Humanity Based on Religious Texts

Mohammad Abbaszadeh Jahromi / Assistant Professor at Jahrom University m_abas12@yahoo.com

Received: 2017/06/01 - Accepted: 2018/12/10


knowing and defining man and discussing the criterion for his humanity is rooted in the history of human knowledge, and nearly all thinkers have encountered it at some point in their life. Hence, addressing the

issue of "the main factor of man’s differentiation from other beings, and the main criterion for humanity" seems essential. Using library sources and analytical method, this research attempts to study this subject by searching in religious texts. Explaining what distinguishes man from other beings, religious texts point to factors such as being grateful to God, modesty, using reason, adherence to divine orders and innate nature. Each of these issues represents an area of human existence. A comprehensive title for all these factors can be called "innate nature".

Key words: man, animal, innate nature.

Examining the Meaning of
"Common Sense" from the Perspective of Allamah Tabataba'i

Omid Ahanchi / Assistant Professor at Sharif University of Technology            ahanchi@sharif.ir

Received: 2017/07/31 - Accepted: 2017/12/05


Reason and rationality have always had a great value and importance throughout human history; however, what leads to disagreement and draws the attention of scholars is the characteristics and features of common sense, because if reason is not accompanied by a sound innate nature, rather than being useful and valuable, it can lead to destruction and devastation. On the other hand, Allameh Tabatabai is one of the greatest philosophers and theosophists of the last century and explaining his views is of particular importance. Thus, this paper seeks to address the question of the conditions and obstacles to achieving common sense from the perspective of this distinguished figure. To this end, firstly, the literal and idiomatic meaning of "reason" in Allameh Tabatabai's works is analyzed. Then, the paper distinguishes between the necessary and perfect condition for achieving common sense from his view point, and deals with the obstacles to achieving common sense and adherence to its outcomes. The research results show that, from the perspective of Allameh, upholding logical principles is a necessary condition; and observance of piety, practicing previous knowledge, as well as entering the Divine Providence are among the perfect conditions for achieving common sense. The outburst of instincts, acting based on suppositions, as well as imitation without rational support are considered to be the most important obstacle to the achievement of common sense, and the pursuit of sensual passions  and the dominance of the faculty of imagination are factors contributing to inattention to the outcomes of common sense.

Key words: common sense, Allameh Tabataba'i, soundness of innate nature, Quranic reason.

The Worldly Reflection of Man’s Bad Deeds in Narrations

Ahmad Reza Zolfaghari / MA in Theology, I.K.I                                               a.zolfaghar58@chmail.ir

Hassan Yusefiyan / Assistant professor of IKI                                                   hasanusofian@gmail.com

Received: 2017/12/20 - Accepted: 2017/10/09


Many verses and narratives have highlighted the effect of man’s actions on natural events and the worldly reflections of those acts. This impact can be examined through a variety of ethical, educational, and

ontological approaches. Using an ontological approach, this research investigates the existential relationship between man’s bad deeds and natural disasters with respect to narrations. Using the traditional method, the effect of the human’s optional actions on natural disasters is proved as particular affirmative proposition; that is, human actions requires the occurrence of some natural events, although some traditions also indicate the complete causality of some acts in relation to their outcomes.

Key words: Optional actions, existential relationship, natural disasters, requirement.

Salafism in the Theological Approach of ibn Kathir Dameshghi,
with a Focus on an Analysis of his Views on Supernatural Affairs

Hamid Imandar / Ph.D. in Quran and Hadith Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad                                                                 


Reza Mollazadeh / Ph.D. student of Quran and Hadith sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad

Received: 2017/12/05 - Accepted: 2018/02/26                                                                            iza_yamchi1368@yahoo.com


Sensational ontology and the differentiated denial of incorporeal beings by Salafis have had a profound effect on their perception of the requirements of monotheism, such as imploration and supplication. In this regard, it seems necessary to consider the views of the commentators attributed to the Salafist movement in the area of supernatural issues. In order to determine the validity of attributing Ibn Kathir to Salafi interpretative school, the present paper studies the interpretative approach of Ibn Kathir as a Salafist commentators on this issue, and compares the views of Ibn Taymiyya, the founder of Salafism , the majority of the followers of this school and the interpretative approach of Ibn Kathir during the compilation of " Tafseer al-Qurʾān al-ʿAẓeem ". Finally, it should be stated that Ibn Kathir has differentiated himself from Salafi doctrines in important discussions such as " Sama' al-Mawta " (dead ones' hearing) and especially the issue of "presentation of deeds". He was implicitly inclined to Salafism in the discussion of "abstractions ", but has not explicitly supported Salafi's position. Hence, the important differences between Ibn Kathir and Salafist views in explaining supernatural affairs as one of the components of Salafism have seriously weakened this sect and the Salafi presuppositions in rejecting concepts such as supplicating the dead.

Key words: Ibn Taymiyya, Ibn Kathir, supernatural affairs, Salafism, Tafseer al-Qurʾān al-ʿAẓeem.