خلاصة المحتويات


Islamic Morality and Mysticism by Muhammad Taqi Misbah

Among the characteristics of the servants of the Beneficent is that they spend part of the night in worshipphing Allah. This characteristic is undoubtedly ascribed to the servants of the Beneficent and the holy Qur¨an has referred to it implicitly in the verses: 43 and 44 of Surah al - Forqan, depicting a very nice picture of them. The holy Qur¨an mentions that they spend the night in worshipping and praying and maintiain vigil until monrning.

Some of the great people who have memorized Surah al- Baqarah and Al-Umran usually recite the Surahs in their recommended prayers. Some say ¨Ashura Supplication or Ja¨far al - Tayyar prayer regularly.

Some others recite Surah al- Qadr thousand times everyday or devote much of their time to learning and they attend lessons regularly, and some others study day and night and stay up late in order to make the most of their time; they study and teach, as well.

Today most people devote their evening hours to watching TV programmes. They have been affected by the situation to such an extent that some consider the great people¨s devotion to worshipping, praryers, learning and supplicating to be not realistic.

The holy Qur¨an presents a truly precise picture of the servants of Allah. It states that when His signs are mentioned before them they cannot help but prostrate themselves in meekness.

Key words: the servants of the Beneficent, prayers, the Qur¨an, worshipping, lesson, great people.

Feminism and the Attitude towards Family

by Isma¨il Chiraghi Kutiyani

Feminism began in its early days with some demonstrations and protests. Gradually these protests developed. After a time a movement which is concerned with women¨s affairs was organized. This trend did not have a strategy of its own. Therfore, it developed a new approach.

This movement claims that it aims to guard women¨s rights both within the society and within the family. The supporters of femisim criticize the family function concerning women; they ascribe most women¨s sufferings to family. Therefore, they call for putting an end to the responibility of the family regarding women or changing the family¨s structure which they think necessary to improve women¨s conditions.

political function of religion in the past and in current time, pointing to the differences and similarities between the two periods.

In the past, when religion had a non- organizational character, it was like the blood which flows in the body of society including politics.

In modern socities, due to the different structural and functional character of political institutions and their extensive functions, politics cannot do without relegion. Besides, religion has an effective role in the realm of politics.

Key words: religion, politics, function, ancient, modern, society, institution, secular.

This essay takes a glance at feminism¨s attitude toward family and underlines the basic principles which this movement adopts regarding the way it views family. Humanism, secularism, individualism, empiricism, relativism, libralism, pragmaticism, ete... form some of the basis for feminism.

Key words: feminism, secularism, humanism, empiricism, relativism, individualism, libralism, pragmaticism.

National Identity; the Elements and Challenges

(a glance at essentialism)

by Muhammad Fuladi

The identity of a nation is an outcome of its past generations¨ struggle over thousands of years. Every generation passes its cultural and national achievements and experiences, in different ways, to the generation that comes after it. Then, the current generation adds to what it has inherited from its prodecessors and, in return, passes it to the next generation, This happens over and over again throughout the history. Just as an individual¨s personality is the outcome of his or her experiences according to which the distinctive features of that individual is determined, the identity of a nation is also an outcome of that nation¨s happy and tragic expriences over thousands of years.

Thinkers have not reached an agreement as to what the elements of the identity of a nation are. In this article, the reader finds answers to a number of questions related to this issue, such as:

Is it possible to invent an identity for a nation? How does the identity of a nation take form? What is the suitable identity and identity elements for the Iranian people and what things ensure its sustainability? On what things does the theory of the identity of essence emphasize? What are the causes of the crisis of national identity?

Key words: identity, the crisis of identity, essence, historical identity, essentialism, the formation of an identity, national spirit.

Religion and Its Political Fuction in Ancient Time and Today

by Amanullah Faseehi