قيمت مقاله الكترونيكي: 

Characteristics of the True Shiites; Justice and Submission to the Right

Ayatollah Mohammad Taghi Mesbah Yazdi


This article is a description of the words of Imam Ali (PBUH) regarding the characteristics of the true Shiites. One of the characteristics of Shiites is spreading justice and submission to the right. A believer may discriminate in helping his faithful brothers and in giving them personal possessions, as much as he wishes to give, but in case of public treasury, he must observe justice, and friendship or enmity should not affect him performing his duty. Also in legal and financial disputes between individuals and when going to a court, he must comply with the court order. Some people are apparently claiming to adhere to Islamic precepts and obey God's instructions, but when thier interests are in danger, they refuse to accept those Islamic precepts. In disputes and where a judge, according to the Islamic standards, has issued a verdict, it must be accepted, however, to the detriment of the individual.

Keywords: Justice, Submission to the Right, Ethical Rights

The Evolution of Ismailia Ontology and Its Effect on Their Religious Invitation

Morteza Maddahi / Ph.D. of Shia Studies from the University of Religions and Denominations    morteza.maddahi@gmail.com

Received: 2019/02/21 - Accepted: 2019/07/08


One of the Shiite sects that still lives in various forms is the Ismaili sect. This sect, in addition to esoteric tendencies and interpretations in the appearance of the religious law, has special points of view in ontological discussions. Ismailis, who were influenced by the Neo-Platonists and the Brethren of Purity in philosophical discussions, in philosophizing for the universe, have traversed one of the most complicated ways. One of the issues that can be investigated from the Ismaili point of view is the Ismailia ontology, in which the traces of the philosophy of Gnosticism, Sophia, Brethren of Purity, Ibn Sina and Farabi are visible. In this article, using a descriptive-analytical method, the issue of the influences of Plato's philosophy, Brethren of Purity, and other philosophers, has been addressed, and their impact on Ismaili invitation system and the necessity for interpretation from their point of view, has been studied. In this article, attempts were made to search for the Ismaili perspective in the system of creation and legislation, and invitation from the works of the Ismaili elders and their interpreters.

Keywords: Ontology, Ismailia, Neo-Platonism.

A Comparative Historical Comparison of Revolutionary Movements and Extremist Groups in the Changes of the History of Islam and Christianity

Behzad Ghasemi / Assistant Professor at Imam Hossein University                                            ghasemi.b@ihu.ac.ir

Received: 2019/01/24 - Accepted: 2019/05/16


The present article attempts to examine the course of the revolutionary-reform movements and the resistance movement in the history of Islam and Christianity, and to explain the areas of extremism and terrorism in Islam and Christian theology. Revolutionary movements and the subject of resistance, in the mentioned religions, are considered to be very important. The contexts of extremism and terrorism in Islamic religious texts and Christian theology are also important topics of interest to researchers and scholars of this field. Current research, while examining the revolutionary movement in Islam and Christianity, tries to show a reading of the foundations of extremism and terrorism in the history of Islam and Christian theology. This descriptive-analytic study seeks to answer the fundamental question: what was the nature of the revolutionary movements in the history of Islam and Christianity? And what has been the process of extremism and terrorism in Islam and Christian theology? The author believes that these two are not fundamentally different in their religious foundations and theological functions; i.e. divine religions are in nature, revolutionary and libertarian, and are anti-terrorism; since both religions have experienced discourses in the history of Islam and Christianity, and also resistance movements. The ideas of both religions are also opposed to extremism, and terrorism stems from political issues and has no religious or intellectual roots.

Keywords: Revolutionary Movement, Extremism, Islam, Christian Theology, Movement.

Paul and His Aberrations in Christianity

Alireza Zakizadeh Ranani / Assistant Professor at Allameh Majlesi University of Isfahan  a.zakizadeh@ymail.com

Akbar Ja’far Zadeh / Third Level Student of Isfahan Specialized Center for Interpretation         akbar.jafarzadeh65@gmail.com

Received: 2019/02/12 - Accepted: 2019/06/09


Paul, one of the influential figures in Christianity, was originally a Jewish expert, and converted to Christianity by introducing himself as a Christian apostle by what happened to him. According to his own Christianity, he has written letters for church administration, preaching, and sometimes reproach for converts. In this article, looking at the travels, letters, thoughts, and beliefs mentioned, we seek to see to what extent those letters conform to the instructions of Jesus Christ, so that they can be accepted as the foundation of Christian beliefs. In this descriptive-analytical study, we came to the conclusion that his beliefs are not only opposed to the teachings of Christ, but are deviations from non-Christian pre-Christian beliefs, that Paul had become acquainted with them before converting to Christianity, and thus, had separated Christians from the teachings of Jesus and the apostles.

Keywords: Jesus, Paul, Deviations, Peter, New Testament, Deity, Incarnation.

Studying Christianity in the Hegel’s Periods of Thought

Masoud Asgari / Ph.D. Student of Philosophy at Isfahan University                            masoudasgary9@gmail.com

Received: 2019/01/01 - Accepted: 2019/04/15


From Hegel's perspective, Christianity can be examined in three periods: Bern, Frankfurt, and Jena. Bern and Frankfurt belong to Hegel's youth or his verbal writings, but Jena belongs to the period of Hegel's perfection, where he builds his philosophy. Hegel in Bern compares Christianity to ancient Greece, and he argues that, unlike Greece, which is a religion of freedom, Christianity, through the necessities of its nature, has become a set of binding rules, that brings the denial of freedom. In this period he compares Christ with Socrates and says: unlike Christ, who believes in the salvation of the individual, Socrates is concerned with the salvation of the public, and for this reason he considers Socrates superior to Christ, but in Frankfurt his view is tempered and he finds a positive view of Christianity. There he insists that Christ replaces love with the irreversible sentences of Judaism, and this will bring human salvation, and finally, in Jena, which belongs to her perfection and maturity, Hegel says Christianity is the absolute truth as is philosophy. The only difference is in the way they are expressed; Christianity expresses the truth in the form of allegory and irony, and philosophy in the form of pure thought. In the end, of course, he concludes that he needs to escape from religion toward philosophy for Christianity is incarnate, not pure thought; and it is only philosophy that presents truth in a pure form. This paper is a descriptive-analytic study of these three periods.

Keywords: God, Christianity, Necessities, Finitude, Infinite.

An Investigation on the Position of Spirit in the Anthropology of Judaism

Mojtaba Arshadi Bahador / MA Student of the Philosophy of Religion at IKI            marshadi1363@gmail.com

Received: 2018/12/07 - Accepted: 2019/04/22


The foundation of every religion is based on its teachings. Anthropology is one of the important teachings in Judaism. Human is of most importance in Judaism, insofar as this influences other teachings of Judaism. One of the most important aspects of human existence that has been of interest to all philosophers, theologians, mystics and scholars is the discussion of the spirit and its characteristics. Paying attention to this existential dimension and drawing on its place in man can be the key to resolving differences between religions. This article is descriptive-analytical and has been compiled using research, books, documents, and related library resources. The result, by looking at the history of Judaism and the Bible and later by the influence of Greek philosophical thoughts by Philo, the Jewish philosopher, the dualism of man, and the emphasis on the spiritual and abstract realm as immortal in Jewish faith, is proven.

Keywords: Spirit, Anthropology, Judaism, Bible, Old Testament, Immaterial, Immortality.

The Position of Religion in the Cyber Paradigm

Seyyed Abolghasem Hosseini Komarolya / Assistant Professor at Shahid Mahallati College S.ahosseini113@yahoo.com

Received: 2018/10/26 - Accepted: 2019/04/16


Developments in the cyber realm, admitted by sociologists, are considered as a different paradigm than in the past. The cyber paradigm has brought about dramatic changes in the political, economic, cultural, social, and security fields. Given the leadership role of religion in all fields and the necessity for its role-playing as a result, the present study, with a descriptive-analytical approach, explores the position of religion in the cyber paradigm. Religion, by defining a particular lifestyle based on its belief and value teachings, can manage different technologies including cyber technology in terms of type and the amount of effort it takes. So it will have a strategic role, and on the other hand, by explaining its social, cultural, political and economic perspectives, should provide remedial solutions to overcome cultural, societal, political and economic challenges.

Keywords: Paradigm, Cyber Paradigm, Religion.

Translation and Criticism of the Islamic Jihad Section of "Religion, violence, and Holy Wars" by Hans Kong

Mohammad Reza Asadi / PhD Student of Religions and Mysticism at IKI                          reza.shaer@gmail.com

Received: 2018/10/26 - Accepted: 2019/04/11


Relationship between religion and the wars that have occurred or are taking place in the world is an issue that has become a subject of debates today and forced some scholars to have made the commentary on this. An article has explored by Hans Kong, a prominent professor of ecclesiastical theology, that studies this issue with focus on three monotheistic religions: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. But since much of this essay is about jihad in Islam and he, as a non-Muslim, has made comments, it seems necessary to evaluate his remarks. The present article, with the aim of preserving the truth of Islam and presenting the original face of its doctrines, has revisited Kung's article in a critical analytical way. This article, in spite of its positive aspects, is intertwined with significant negative points in introducing this important Islamic teaching.

Keywords: Religions, Holy war, Jihad, Islam, Violence, Hans Kong.

Behavior of Muslims and Christians in the Conquest of Andalusia and the Crusades; Reflection of the Quran and Bible's View of Dealing with Enemies in War

Ahmad Aghaei Meybodi / Ph.D. Student of Quranic Teachings at Qom University       aghaiahmad@gmail.com

Amir Abbas Mahdavi Fard / Assistant Professor at Qom University                             aa.mahdavifard@qom.ac.ir

Received: 2018/11/26 - Accepted: 2019/05/15


Western political and religious leaders have resorted to the trick of Islamophobia and hatred of Islam among Westerners to prevent the Christian community from adopting the vital religion of Islam. This study seeks to describe, in a descriptive-analytic way, the behavior of Muslims and Christians in military confrontations to conclude which religion and its followers deserves to be feared. According to historical reports, Muslims in their conquest of Andalusia, along with the greatest possible tolerance with Christians, brought with them culture and civilization that by the admittance of Western scholars, had saved the Europe drowned in the darkness and ignorance of the middle ages. On the contrary, Christians during the Crusades, having religious motivations, have committed crimes and atrocities that now the Islamophobia in the west is a model of those Crusades. Although the behavior of the followers of different religions is different, the teachings of Islam and current Christianity show that the performance of Muslims and Christians in these wars is a reflection of the teachings of these two religions.

Keywords: The Conquest of Andalusia, Islamic Civilization, The Crusades, The Legitimacy of the Crusades.