Islamic Morality and Mysticismby Muhammad Taqi Misbah

Along with the characteristics of Ibad al-Rahman (servants of the Beneficent) previously stated, three other characteristics having negative contexts are presented in the Quranic verse 68 in Surah al-Furqan; including rejecting polytheism, refraining from slaying the soul Allah has forbidden, and protecting oneself from indecency. Polytheism takes different froms, and in addition to the main kind of polytheism i.e. associating a god with Allah with its limited number of proponents, there are other lower and covert forms of polytheism which are more common than the former kind.

  The true believers resorting to Ahl al-Bayt for mediation (tawssul) does not correspond to polytheism, rather it is a source of abundance of Allhs blessings; a fact which is confirmed by the Quranic verses.

  In Islam to slay a respected soul is forbbiden but to sentence to death a person who brings about corruption is not forbidden. The stance of the Univeral Declaration of Human Rights on this particular issue is different from that of Islam.

  In order to restrain oneself from committing dreadful sins, it is incumbent upon one to keep away from doing things that draw one to committing dreadful sins and in order to preserve ones chastity, one has to restrain oneself from looking at a non mahram.

  Committing unbecoming dreadful sins invalidates ones efforts, and those who commit such sins will not be diffrent from those who have done no good.

Key words: servants of the Beneficent, unbecoming dreadful sins, polytheism, slaying the soul, indecency.

Memory and Forgetfulness form a Psychological View

Husayn Kareemiyan

Memory is one of the characteristics which distinguishes humans form animals. It is responsible for storing information and retrieving it when necessary. But, in many cases one fails to recall things stored in ones mind and this failure results from what is termed "forgetfulness". The author explores the meaning and kinds of memory, the meaning of forgetfulness, the process of memory and the methods of measuring memory. The final part of the article mentions the causes of forgetfulness proposing some ways for enhancing ones memory and preventing forgetfulness.

Key words: memory, forgetfulness, decoding, storage, retrieving.

The "Collective Learning" Approach; How to Apply It in the Centres of Islamic Education (Hawzah) and in the University

by Hadi Hussayn Khani

The approaches to learning can be grouped under two main headings: teacher- centred and learner - centred approaches.

  The first kind concentrates on the role of the teacher, i.e. most of the class activities are done by the teacher. In learner - centred approaches, most of class activities are done by the students.

  Due to their special significance, learner-centred approaches have been a source of interest to educationists and researchers.

  The "collective learning" approach, which is considered one of the learner - centred approaches, enjoys special importance.

  The present article presents a definition of this approach and reviews the possiblity of its application, its advantages and conditions of its success. The suitable place of employing it, the types of people who take part in it and some of the obstacles of using it are among the questions with which the article deals.

  The final part, sheds light on some of the possibility of using this approach in the centres of Islamic education (Hawzah) and in the univeirsity.

Key words: learner - centred approach, collective learning approach, teacher - centred approach.