The Creation of Man and the Stages of Life according to "Allama Tabatabi

by Muhammad Jawad Yawari

According to the Quran and the traditions of the Prophet and the Infallibles, man is composed of body and spirit, and mans creation takes two forms; the first man, i.e. Adam (peace be upon him) was created from dust, whereas the cause of the creation of the children of Adam is the sperm. Accordingly, first of all, Allah created Adam and it was through Adams sperm that the later generations were and are created.

After birth, man lives in this world for a fixed time and when mans term of life ends, he dies and his spirit migrates to another world called Barzach (the intermediate stage between the life in this world and the eternal life).

The most essential thing in man is his spirit, which clings to the body througout his life, and when he dies, the spirit and the body separate.

On the Day of Judgement both the spirit and the body are called to account.

Key words: man, creation, spirit, the intermediate stage between the life in this world and the eternal life, the Day of Judgement.

Epistemology of Feminismby Abbas ALi Amiri

Epistemology of feminism is a new trend which developed in the west as a result of the direct influence of gender on knowledge. The aim which this trend seeks is removing the so - called sexual discrimination and introducing a new subject to epistemology which formerly received no attention.

The influence of gender on knowledge-acquisition was investigated in some way by three radical and liberal trends on the basis of the epistemolgy at their disposal. These trends, however, essentially depend on the principles of epistemology that govern the modern world and consider them to be their own. In other words, in each trend which is in favour of epistemology of feminism, both minimal and maximal, such elements like Descartes distinction between subject and object, observing the status of subject, substantialism and constant reality could be detected. An examination of the stated elements can contribute a great deal to uncovering the nature of epistemolgoy of feminism.

Key words: substantialism, radical, in the viewpoint of, liberal, Descartes, thought.

Challenges to Applied Ethics

by Tim Dare / translated by Muhammad Sadiq Alipour

Applied ethics is among the areas of thinking in which philosophy has a considerable role.

This matter of thinking developed in the last three decades, and though the refinement and elaboration of general ethical theories and work might properly continue, philosophers should not suppose that their efforts on these matters to have any practical value.

The main question with which applied ethics is concerned is whether or not it is possible to give authoritative advice as to what is right and what is wrong.

This article presents and assesses the principal challenges to applied ethics. An influential cluster of challenges to applied ethics springs from meta - ethical views about the possibility of moral knowledge. The author tries to give an overview of some of the main varities, such as relativism and subjectivism, and touches on ethics and the role of reasons and on the possibility of ethical expertise.

The author concludes: "given the significance of many of the issues applied ethicists face, there is a need for ways of going on with which it is possible for us to live as individuals and as communities".

Key words: ethical expertise, subjectivism, ethical relativism, ethical theory.