Key words: the relationship between the Quran and prophetic traditions, the narrations in favour of assessing traditions by the Quran, fabricated traditions, critisizing the content of traditions, critisizing traditions by the Quran.

Loanwords in the Quran

by Seyyed Abdul Rasul Husayni Zadeh

Loanwords in the Quran are words of a non Arabic origin that were taken into Arabic and naturalized. The special significance of this research arises from the fact that some claim that the existence of loanwords in an Arabic Book like the Quran is a moot point, an assumption which some orientalists may exploit for their purposes.

This article elaborates on the different views put forward in this regard, criticizes them, and concludes that using words which are not of an Arabic origin by the Quran is not a problem, because these words, though originally not Arabic, had been taken into Arabic and naturalized before the revelation of the Quran. Accordingly, there is no contradication in this regard.

As for the question that the Quran includes words which are similar to those in other heavenly Books, it should be noted that all heavenly Books come from one revelatory origin, i.e.revelation. Therfore, the claim of some orientalists that the Quran has borrowed words and expressions from other heavely Books is groundless.

Key words: the Quran, loanwords, Arabized words, the miracle of the Quran.

eration, change, the Torah, the Bible,

The Use of Dual Attributes of Man by the Quran

by Hojatallah Ali Muhammadi

Mulism thinkers have, for long, sought to identify the way human features are shown by the Quran. The Quranic verses which are concerned with human features are of two kinds: some use words and expressions to praise man and others use words to blame and rebuke man.

The present article, which seeks to explore the reason why the Quran use dual feature to describe man, uses a theoretical approach based on library resources and examines and criticizes the views adopted by some Muslims scholars in this regard.

Distinguishing between the stage of creation during which man was granted specific facilities and the stage of prescribing moral values can be a good ground for understanding the reason for using dual feature of man in the Quran.

key words: mankind, innate disposition, nature, creation, prescribing moral values.

The Conception of Agreement and Disagreement of Prophetic Traditions with the Quran in the Narrations of Ard

by Ismail Sultani

The traditions narrated from the Infallibles consider the way of assessing the narrations by the Quran as a criterion for judging their soundness. Such traditions are known as the narrations of Ard. The author elaborates on the meaning of the narrations of Ard, investigates the texts of the mentioned narrations and then, by analyzing the texts of the narrations and thinkers views in this regard, introduces answers to a number of questions.

According to the texts of the narrations of Ard, the word "Book", as the criterion for assessing the mentioned narrations, refers to the Quran, and so neither the Sunnah nor intellectual demonstration is concerned here. When estimated by the Quran, a narration which does not disagree with the Quran is considered weightier. The author concludes that the ways the narrations disagree with the Quran are as follows: 1. disagreement due to difference; 2. disagreement with the general rules inferred from the Quran; 3. disagreement due to partial difference, though this type is not attended to. Assessing a tradition by the Quran is not restricted to the case when there is contradiction between two statements, rather every narration has to be assessed by the Quran.

If we divide the accounts of Ard in terms of content we notice two categories; 1. accounts rejecting the idea of associating to the infallibles the narrations that disagree with the Quran, 2. accounts negating the authority of narrations.

Key words: narrations, the Quran, the narrations of Ard, a tradition that agrees with the Quran, a tradition which disagrees with the Quran.

Criticism of the Views of the Opponents of Assessing Prophetic Traditions by the Quranby Gholam Ali Azizikiya

There are certain measures for distinguishing between sound and unsound prophetic traditions. One of these methods, which is prescribed by the Infallibles, is assessing prophetic traditions by the holy Quran.

Some Sunni schorlars express their dissatisfaction with this criterion claiming that the narrations in favour of the assessment of prophetic traditions by the Quran are fabricated. The question that arises here is: what proofs do these scholars offer? what is wrong with their argument?

The article explores the weaknesses in the argument of these scholars, stressing the necessity of referring to the Quran for assessing any suspected tradition.

To this end, the article cites a number of narrations that confirm the necessity of referring to the Quran for the assessment of prophetic traditions, criticizes the opponents views and refutes the claim that the narrations in favour of assessing prophetic traditions by the Quran are fabricated.

Epistemological Obstacles and Hazards to Exegesis of the Quran

by Mustafa Karimi

Acquaintance with the obstacles to interpretation and how to avoid them is necessary for correct understanding of the Quran. Therefore, the infallible imams have warned people against the danger of such obstacles. Studies have been made by Muslim scholars in this regard, but their studies are not as comprehensive and accurate as they ought to be.

This article, which seeks to identify these obstacles and defects, reviews and delve into the deficiency in epistemological knowledge, which are as follows: 1. imposing ones own ideas on the real meaning; 2. interpretation based on unrealistic understanding of Quranic verses; 3. Taking the lexical meaning as a criterion for interpretaion and relying on unsound references or dictionaries; 4. ignoring the rules of word formation (sarf) or syntax (nahw); 5. disregarding formal indications and implications; 6. inattention to the meaning underlining the words or assuming that the deep meaning of the Quran is known by no one except Allah; 7. interpreting the Quran according to uncertain intellectual evidence, unauthentic imperical findings, personal reasoning and unsound evidence taken from transmitted knowledge.

Key words: hazards to interpretation, self-opinionated interpreation, lexical understanding, perception, literature discipines, rhetoric disciplines, weak cross-examination, deep meaning of the Quran.

A Critique of the Way of Interpreting the Verses on Shafaah (Intercession) by Al-Manar

by Ali Awsat Baqiri

There is a number of Quranic verses in the Quran which refer to shafaah (intercession) and use various expressions for it. Shafaah is a fact which is confirmed by some Quranic verses. The authors of Al-Manar Commentary hold that the word shafaah means domination of the will of those who intercede over that of Allah and so these authors oppose the possibility of the existence of shafaah claiming that the idea of shafaah is negated by all Quranic verses.

The idea of shafaah, actually, does not suggest domination of an interceders will over the will of Allah nor does it contribute to changing Allahs knowledge. Shafaah, however, is a divine law which dominates the laws related to penalty.

The present article seeks to criticize the way the authors of Al-Manar Commentary have interpreted "intercession". The last part of the article elaborates on the mentioned verses and the evidence which these verses provide regarding their reference to ontological shafaah.

key words: intercession, the verses on intercession, legislative intercession, ontological intercession, Al-Mannar Commentary, Al-Mizan Commentary.


Subject Interpretation

(an interview with Ayatollah Muhammad Taqi Misbah)

Though, subject interpretation practically, has a long history, the term subject interpretation is a new one. According to this kind of interpretation, those who want to investigate any question, should probe into all the Quranic verses related to it and see what the Quran says about it. Subject interpretation is either atomistic or holistic.

In the first type the interpreters aim is to discover the Quranic view about one or more problems. In holistic interpretation, understanding the Quranic view requires a careful study of the contents of the whole Quran, and the topics has to be arranged in a logical order.

In subject interpretation, one has to read the whole Quran carefully a least once, compile the verses related to the subject, classify them and understand each of them separately and interpret the verses in the light of the contents of other verses and contextual clues.

Subject interpretation has various levels. The highest one is that which explores the problem in the light of other approaches and subjects.

Key words: the Quran, subject interpretation, definition, stages and levels.

Quranic Principles of Interpreting the Quran by the Quran

by Ali Fathi

Interpreting the Quran by the Quran, which means making the most use of Quranic verses for the sake of having a clear idea about the meaning of certain Quranic verses, has always been accepted by those who study the Quran, though no separate methodological study has been made about this kind of interpretation so far. However, it is believed that the exposition of a theoretical infrastructure of this kind of interpretation, refered to as "basic principles", is among the essential current issues.

The present article attempts to recognize the Quranic basic principles of interpreting the Quran by the Quran, using a theoretical and methodological approach. According to the Quran, there is special correlation between the Quranic verses in addition to the entire relevence and cohesion. Their overall structure is firmly built, their language is vivid, their evidence is independent, and in case of ambiguous verses one can refer to the perspicatious verses in order to understand the ambiguity. In order to have access to the correct way of interpreting the Quran by the Quran, one has to observe the Quranic priciples of this sort of interpretation.

Key words: interpreting the Quran by the Quran, the principles of interpreting the Quran by the Quran, the cohesion of verses, independant reasoning, perspicacious and ambiguous verse, link.