The Status of Love of and Intimacy with the Deity

Ayatollah 'Allamah Mohammad Taqi Misbah

The present lecture is a commentary on Imam Sajjad's Munajat al- Mohibbeen (the whispered prayer of the lovers). "Love" means to desire and like something or someone which leads to devotion, rapture, affection, and excitment. Love is always associated with feeling of joy and nearness to the beloved. In other words, love will is not love if joy is not shown by the beloved to the lover. The greatest pleasure is manifested in one’s love of God. When one tastes the sweetness of the love of God and is filled with the joy of that love, he/she will never think of a substitute. That is, when one is brought nigh to God, he/she will never turn away from this blessing. Rememberance of God and His free blessings is the means to the love of Him. Furthermore, the deeper the knowledge of God, the greater the love of Him.

Key words: God, love, beloved, lover, intimacy with God.


Quranic Stories and Religious Language Approaches to the Analysis of Them

Mohammad Ja'fari

The mechanism of Qur’an language and its linguistic implications is among the questions which have been a source of interest and challenge to interpreters, theologians, and other researchers of religion. Among the questions that arise here are: Can we say that all Qur’anic verses and propositions are statement of facts? Is it possible to change the metaphorsin some of the Quranic figurative, symbolic, and allegorical phrases into facts and reality or not? In response to these questions, especially in as far as Quranic stories are concerned two main approaches are presented. The first includes unrealistic views and provides some interpretations and ideas of the Quranic stories which empty out the real content of these stories which constitute the external significance of the words of these stories. The second approach includes some views that consider the content of Quranic stories as something connected with past events and occurrences.
Using an analytical- descriptive method, the present paper sheds light on and criticizes five views about the first approach and two views about the second approach.
Key words: story, interpretation, esoteric commentary, allegory, functionalism, cognitive.


The Possibility and Necessity of Spiritual Resurrection

Safdar Ilahirad

"The doctrine of resurrection" is one of the truly fundamental religious doctrines which represents the basis of many other doctrines including legal, moral, political, and cultural doctrines. Philosophers and theologians have elucidated and analyzed two aspects of resurrection: spiritual resurrection and bodily resurrection.
Using an analytical approach and rational and traditional method, the present paper sheds light on and analyzes the principles of and evidence for the idea of "spiritual resurrection" in terms of its possibility and necessity. Establishing the existence of a second dimension in man, as the most important basis of spiritual resurrection prepares the grounds for elucidating the rational and traditional evidence for the possibility of the spiritual resurrection. Establishing the necessity of spiritual resurrection requires the establishment of a second dimension and the affirmation of fundamentality of soul. After establishing these preliminaries, one can investigate and analyze the evidence for the necessity of spiritual resurrection. This paper aims at analyzing and evaluating the philosophers and theologians' evidence which supports the necessity of resurrection and fundamentality of soul.

Key words: spiritual resurrection, soul, fundamentality of the soul, eternity, incorporeality, psyche, body


Mahdism in Imam Sadiq's Thoughts

Mohammad Hussein Faryab

The belief in the appearance of a deliverer- whom Muslims called "Mahdi"- is one of the beliefs which all divine religions have in common. The real leaders of the manifest religion of Islam have made through studies on Mahdism since the early Islam,which was of great help to the Shi'as during the occultation period of the twelfth Imam.
Using a traditional method and focusing on Imam Sadiq's words, the present paper provides the Shi'as and the followers of Shiite school with a clear idea about the doctrine of Mahdism. According to the findings of the research, and due to certain historical conditions, much opportunity was found during Imam Sadiq's time to elaborate on Mahdism. The particular issues related to Mahdism were dealt with in this period and Imam gave special attention to defining the duties of those who await Imam Mahdi during occultation period, the event of the Last Age and the events which occur during Imam Mahdi's uprising before the establishment of his government…

Key words: Mahdism, a waiting, Imam Sadiq (peace be upon him), signs of Imam Mahdi’s appearance, Mahdi's government.


A Comparison between Prophet and Imam in Imam Reza's Words

Hassan Sadeqi

If we delve into the traditions transmitted from Imam Reza (peace be upon him), we will be able to compare between prophet and Imam and single out the prophet's characteristics which Imam has. A review of these traditions reveals that the station of Imamate is exclusive to those who possess most of the characteristics which a prophet has. So, not all those who have the titles of caliph, Muslims' ruler and the like deserve the station of Imamate.
Focusing on the traditions transmitted form Imam Reza (peace be upon him), the present paper which makes a documentary study examines Imam Reza's views regarding the differences between Imam and prophet. The research findings show that Imam and prophet have a lot in common, including their servitude to God, their being elected and appointed by God, their infallibility, their divine knowledge, their divine authority and divine vicegerence. Besides, Imam and prophet differ in kind of relations they have with the angels. Furthermore, Imam (for this being Imam) is superior to prophet (for this being prophet).

Key words: prophet's characteristics, prophet, Imam, Imam's characteristics, Imam Reza (peace be upon him).


Heavenly Angels from Mulla Sadra's Viewpoint

Seyyed Sadr al-din Taheri, Mona Faridi Khorshidi

The present paper discusses Mulla Sadra's views about the nature and features of angels. Focusing on Mulla Sadra's views, it tries to prove the existence of angels, their nature and their number, and show the philosophical view about the characteristics and types of angels. Angels are luminous and incorporeal beings whose duty is to effuse good and invite man to happiness. Mulla Sadra believes that there are different types of angels and each group of the angels have certain duties assigned by God. One of these groups have the duty of bringing down God's message from the celestial world to the terrestrial world. The discussion about this group of angels who are mediators between the Divine world and the material world is closely related with the theory of emanation, longitudinal hierarchy of intellects, and the way of the evolving of unity from plurality. To sum up, it is difficult, or to be more accurate, impossible to have access to Mulla Sadra's clear view about the compatibility or incompatibility of heavenly angels with intellects.

Key words: angels, nature of angels, types of angels, characteristics of angels, the heads of angels, intellects, the theory of emanation.


The Return (Raj’ah) according to the Shiite and to the Straying Sect of Baha'ism

Samandokht Kabiri Samani, Ali Malekzadeh

Using a descriptive-analytical approach, the present paper studies the views adopted by the Shiite and Baha'ism about the "the Return". The idea of "the return" is one of the ideological issues in Shiite culture, and many traditional and rational proofs have been offered to support it. In Shiite culture and according to Quranic verses and traditions, "the Return" strictly means the return the life of a number of dead people when Imam Mahdi reappers; some from among the sincre and pure to help him and some from among the enemies to receive punishment in return for there crimes.
However, the straying sect of Baha'ism, which attempt to introduce itself as a new religion, does not accept the Shiite view of the Return and interprets the Quranic verses according to its own view. Baha’ism holds that some of the characteristics of the bygone prophets and saints will return to the prophet who will come later.

Key words: the Shiite, the Return, Baha'ism, interpretation of the Quran according to one's own views.


The Effects of the Theory of Multiple Interpretations (Readings)

Hussein Takmili

In the centuries followed the initiation of hermeneutic discussions in the West, the idea of permissibility of multiple interpretations, thanks to these discussions, was put forward. According to this idea, which is the outcome of philosophical hermeneutics, a writer's intent has no effect on the understanding of the text and a text is silent and cannot explain the meaning of its content. Therefore, the interpreter depends on his own mental presuppositions for understanding the meaning of the text.
The question that is raised here is; if there are different possible interpretations of a text, are all these accidental (latitudinal) interpretations correct and compatible with reality? Is it possible to have interpretations that do not correspond to the text? It is taken for granted that to consider correct the multiple interpretations of a text which have opposite interpretations is not acceptable, and it is common sense to consider such a thing incompatible with many principles and axioms. Therefore, when we see that the requisites of this theory are unsound, we realize that the theory is invalid and unsound.
Using an analytical-descriptive method, the present paper tries to examine some of the unsound reuisits of this theory. The theory which has irrational requisits and effects, is doomed to failure.

Key words: multiple interpretations, hermeneutics, philosophical hermeneutics, anarchism.