The Whispered Prayer of the Knowers: the Nature and Scope of the Knowledge of God (3)

Ayatollah 'Allamah Mohammad Taqi Misbah


Knowledge is acquired discursively and intuitively. Friends of God do not know the Most High God through mental concepts and His absent attributes; rather, they know God through Himself and intuitive knowledge. In this way, a correct understanding about pure concepts and teachings of Holy Prophet's household can be achieved by developing intuitive instances. Intuitive knowledge has high and low degrees. It is sometimes conscious and at other times semiconscious. Intuitive knowledge sometimes extends to such a degree, due to guided perceiver's existential greatness and perfection, that he visions all realities of existence. The present paper discusses the manner, possibility or impossibility of knowing the core of essence of the Most High God or intuitive knowledge.

Key words: the nature of knowledge, intuitive knowledge, acquired knowledge, meaning of intuitive knowledge about God, essence of God.


Youth's View about Factors Influencing Them to Accept or Avoid Religion

Leila Mo'afi, Abbas Ashrafi


Acceptance of religion means believing, accepting and obeying whatever Glorified God has sent to human society through prophets and imams (peace be upon them), and avoidance of religion means the opposite. The present paper studies the issue with the aim of recognizing "the factors influencing the youth to accept and avoid religion, with emphasis on religious teachings. The statistical population consists of 377 individuals who include high school students of Sari educational organization, zone one, and university students of Sari Azad Islamic University (over all, 15 to 29 years old) and are selected through random-classified sampling. A descriptive-survey method and researcher-made questionnaire with 23 items are used in this research. Having assessed the validity and reliability of the questionnaire, the students completed it. SPSS software and descriptive-inferential statistics were used to analyze the data.

The research findings indicate that type of education in families, relationship with friends and peers, religious individuals' behavior, mass media and knowing individual will influence youth to accept religion. Furthermore, the most influential factors among university and high school students are knowing and acquaintance with religion, type of education in family, the behavior of religious individuals and instructors of religious matters, relationship with friends and peers and mass media, respectively.

Key words: accepting religion, avoiding religion, youth, religious knowledge, family training, behavior of instructors of religious matters, peers, mass media.

The Stages of Spiritual-Ritual Education, with Emphasis on Prayer and Fasting

Mehdi Shokrullahi


No doubt, every age-group has its own features and demands. If the process of education is based on the stages of growth, mental development and features of each age-group, it will be successful. Parents' unawareness of features, stages and method of teaching ritual duties and responsibilities is the most important factor of their failure in ritual education. Using a descriptive-analytical method, the present paper seeks to expound the most important stages of teaching religious duties by referring to traditions about education and religious sources. The research findings indicate that among the ramifications of religion, praying and fasting are more necessary than other ritual duties to be taught to children from their childhood. This paper suggests that prayer is formally taught at the age of 7 and fasting at the age of 9. As the child grows mentally and physically, the grounds for instructing religious injunctions and their conditions and other religious duties and recommendations are prepared. This paper seeks to provide a practical technique for teaching ritual duties, for which at least six stages can be considered. If a child achieves the final state of this technique, as the most important aim of this paper, ritual education will be realized completely and correctly.

Key words: training, ritual education, stages of education, praying, fasting, and recommendations.

A Reanalysis of Factors Influential in Attracting Students to Communal Prayer in Schools

Seifullah Fazlullahi, Mansooreh Maleki Tavana


The present paper aims at investigating the factors influential in attracting students to communal prayers at schools. A descriptive-survey method is used in this research whose statistical population includes 360 students of Qom educational organization, zone two, who were selected through classified random sampling. A researcher- made questionnaire with the reliability of 0.81 is used to gather data which were analyzed by Chi-squared tests, one-group T-test, and two independent groups T-test. The data analysis indicate the following results: 1- there is a significant difference between male and female students as to the factors influential in attracting them to communal prayers. 2. Parents and school staff's Religious attitudes and their participation in communal prayers at school increases students' motive to attend communal prayers. 3- Students' knowledge of benefits of prayer and communal prayer and their participation in religious sessions has a positive relationship with their attitude towards communal prayer at school. 4- The way through which the responsibility of conducting communal prayer is assigned to students and reinforced is influential in increasing their interest and participation in communal prayer. 5- Prayer leader's personality and influence and the nature of his relationship with students, condition of prayer hall have a meaningful relationship with students' inclination towards attending communal prayer.

Key words: communal prayer, students, secondary schools, factors of attraction.


Transcendent Values and Norms in the Chapter of Luqman and the Ways of Making Them Functional in Society

Hamid Reza Narimani, 'Arefeh Khoorvash, Hosein Emami


One of the most basic components of human societies is "need" which is met in the context of culture. Values which are realized as norms are the important components of the culture of every society. Research on these components and reinforcing and highlighting them will result in the protection of the culture of society against aggressive cultures.

Referring to and analyzing the content of holy verses of the chapter Luqman, the present paper seeks to elucidate eight value models and their related norms. Among the results of this paper are: elaborating on some of the ways of making these components acceptable in society, providing a new method as the beginning of similar research on the verses of other chapters, comparing the chapters, and formulating a comprehensive set of values and norms, as the only single way of meeting man's most basic need, i.e. achieving real and eternal happiness and welfare.

Key words: chapter of Luqman, culture, norms, applied methods.


A Comparative Analysis of Behavioral Factors of Spiritual Education of Child in family (Childhood Period)

Mohammad Ehsani, Abulfazl Sajedi


Considering the question of spiritual education of children, which is regarded as a problem of family and society today, the present research is conducted with the aim of comparing the view of Islam with that of behaviorist theory on spiritual education of children by using an analytical-descriptive method. It identifies behavioral factors which are influential in the spiritual education of children in family space in two fields of worship and morality. Then it studies these factors by using a religious-Quranic approach and compares them with the view of behaviorism in order to show their similarities and differences. Main difference between these two views lies in their anthropology, which has considerable influence on the education of children. According to behaviorism, spiritual education of children is useless, because there is no immaterial thing in children. Conversely, according to the theory of Islam, this type of education for children and taking into consideration their spiritual aspect is a necessary and crucial fact throughout their life.

Key words: spiritual education, behavioral factor, childhood period, ritual behavior, moral factor, lifestyle.


The Style of Islamic Coverage in Martyr Motahhari's View

Zahra Poorroostaei Ardakani, Mohammad Ali Mohiti Ardakani


Clothing is one of the most important symbols of human civilization and a meaningful social act. Using a descriptive-analytical method, the present paper aims at elaborating on Martyr Motahhari's view about Islamic criteria of coverage and concludes that clothing is a divine grace to dignify man and that Islam directs man towards civilization by ordering him to cover himself. Although Islam does not specify a certain form and design for clothing, it lays down some criteria for it, which is studied under the title of "Islamic style of coverage". These criteria are laid down on the basis of man's nature and in order to enrich human civilization, maintain the strength and independence of Islamic society and consolidate family system. Among the requirements of Islamic clothing are orderly condition, taking into consideration social spirits- for example, devotion, sympathy and conformity with majority- keeping self-respect, observing order and cleanness, and keeping human dignity and respect. On the other hand, imitating foreigners and likening one to them, wearing clothes to gain fame, likening oneself to opposite sex, wasting, etc have no place in Islamic style of clothing and are forbidden.

Key words: martyr Motahhari, lifestyle, coverage, clothing, civilization, Islam.


The Obstacles of Intellectual Cultivation in Martyr Motahhari's View

Maryam 'Ashoori, Mohammad Hussein Heidari, Hassan Ali Bakhtiar Nasrabadi


One of the most important factors which is influential in education is developing and strengthening the power of intellect, because intellect has an important role in moderating and controlling animated inclinations and calling to good acts and commitment to noble dispositions. Using a descriptive-analytical method, the present paper seeks to investigate the factors and obstacles of intellectual cultivation based on martyr Motahhari's views, and elaborate on intellectual cultivation in the field of Islamic education. The research findings indicate that obstacles of cultivation of intellect, in martyr Motahhari's view, can be attributed to moral and affective causes (for example, following appetitive soul, intimidation, etc), cultural, social and political causes (for example, culture and compulsion governing the society, following social habits, etc) and physical causes (for example improper use of senses, use of beverages and drugs).

Key words: Islamic education, martyr Motahhari, intellectual cultivation, obstacles of intellectual cultivation.

The Obstacles of Social Education of Children in Modern Families

Mohammad Sharif Heidari, Abulfazl Sajedi


Family is the most important center of social education and socialization, which has an important role in educating and socializing children, especially during early years of their life. In the meantime, some obstacles and damages prevent family from playing an influential role in social education of children. Using a descriptive-documentary approach and referring to religious texts and findings of new sciences, the present paper investigates the obstacles and damages which, in some way, prevent family from playing an important role in social education of children. Exhaustion of children's social capital in family, breakage of family system and divorce, going to extremes in socialization of gender roles, disharmony between family and other factors of social education and weak control of family over children in modern families are among the problems which can prevent ideal social education of children in family. This paper tries to achieve the parameters which reflect the obstacles of social education in family.

Key words: family, child, social education, religious social education, obstacles of social education, socialization, social capital, divorce, social control.