A New Look at Nearness to God

Ayatollah 'Allamah Mohammad Taqi Misbah

The present paper, which expounds Munajat al-Muhibeen(whispered prayer of the lovers) by Imam Sajjad (the lord of those who prostrate God) and introduces a new interpretation of the idea of nearness to God. Sometimes “nearness” has a physical meaning and sometimes it refers to abstract and metaphysical ideas. “Nearness” It is one of the most common terms in Islamic sciences and monotheistic religions. According to the first interpretation, nearness to God does not have a physical, spatial or temporal meaning; rather, it refers to the spiritual nearness and proximity to God. According to the second interpretation, nearness to God is a spiritual and real thing and it means the nearness to God, not in the conventional meaning. According to the third interpretation, nearness has an ontological idea possessed by all the servants of God. God’s minute by minute effusion of existence dependent on nearness to God. The meaning of nearness to God is known in the light of religious acts of worship where by man reaches a position which makes him have better vision of God and contemplate Him. However, having a vision of God by eye of heart has different levels.
Key words: nearness, nearness to God, witnessing God, ontological nearness, the nature of nearness.

The Role of Islamization of Educational Content
in Internalizing  Islamic Values

Seyyed Mohammad Sadiq Moosawinasab, Hadi Razzaqi, Hussein Khatibi


The florescence and internalization of Islamic values which contribute to establishing identity are based on direct and indirect methods of education. One of the indirect methods is incorporating divine values in scientific books and textbooks for Islamizing their contents. In this way the Islamic book cherishes values even books of mathematics or sciences.
Analyzing the role of the Islamic book content in internalizing Islamic values is related to the exact knowledge of Islamic content. Having known the criteria of distinguishing Islamic content from non-Islamic, we find that the Islamic book has five roles and functions in the internalization of values such as cherishing monotheism, cultivating the intellect, teaching traditions, achieving perfection and cherishing of values. These are the functions that gradually and indirectly internalize Islamic values. Internalization of values by means of Islamic books can contribute to the promotion of man’s perfection and building Islamic identity and personality.
Key words: analysis of book content, Islamization of educational content, Islamic textbook, Islamic science, curriculum content, methods of internalizing Islamic values.


The Methods of Actualization of Values

Reza Zare'i Samangan, Seyyed Rasool Koohestani, Qolam Ali Zare', Mohammad Reza Qanbari

Methodology is a prerequisite for man's success and among the thing, which man likes to achieve is happiness. Therefore, as a book of guidance the holy Quran regards man's happiness as a basic need and achieving it requires the revival of divine values. The Qur’an has defined values and make known to man what methods can be used to actualize them. It is necessary for those who are in charge of the educational affairs to get familiar these methods. Using a documentary method, the present paper reviews the methods proposed by the Qur’an and traditions (rewayat) to actualize these values.
The research findings include: preparing the grounds for the acceptance of values by stripping thoughts away from disvalues; replacing anti-values by values; proposing axiological models frequent observance of values, stimulating benefactors.
Key words: values, education, actualization of values.

Multicultural Policy and Cherishing Values: Cherishing Islamic Values in a Multicultural World

Mohammad Ali Tavana, Aris Dawoodi

Nowadays, the world witnesses the formation of increasingly interconnected and multicultural societies, as a result, serious attention is given to multicultural policies to resolve the problems of the variety of cultures, nations and religions, which has brought about some changes to educational policies. In other words, the present multicultural situation demands particular educational policies. Using a descriptive-analytical method, according to the present paper the present multicultural situation has prepared the grounds for the promotion of cherishing Islamic values, on one hand and Islamic values are capable for coping with this situation on the other hand. Having described the multicultural situation, the author examines the relationship between this situation and the education of Islamic values. He, finally makes explicit that Islamic tradition has the capability of confronting this situation and presenting for the world Islamic values, especially in as far as cherishing values is concerned.
Key words: multiculturalism, Islamic values, education, evaluation of relationship, futurology.

The Role of Mass Media in Cherishing Social Values with Emphasis
on the National Media

Seyyed Hussein Sharaf-Al-din

Exiology, system which is the most important and fundamental cultural constituent of every society usually reorganize itself as abstract and annexed manifestations through its gradual penetration and infusion into individuals' personality structure, institutions, and social structures. It continues to exist like a stream in psychological and social contexts and in a dominant semantic and discourse sphere of society. Cherishing values and other relevant constituents depends mainly on certain factors, and means. Nowadays, mass media, especially visual media, is considered as the most distinguished canal for cherishing, reviving, strengthening, change, modification, and even increase of values.
 Using a sociological and communicative approach, the present paper tries to analyze and review the role of the national media in rereading, cherishing, disseminating, distinguishing and preserving Islamic values or the values approved by Islam. Special attention is given to the national media, which represents a public university and one of the cultural arms of Islamic system by referring to normative infrastructures and institutionalized expectations.
Key words: culture, norm, value, media, national media, sociability.

The System of Values, Personality and Change

Ali 'Isazadegan

Theoretical findings show that axiological system is considered man's most fundamental belief and it exerts influence on man’s behavior. The present paper tries to study the relationship between axiological system, personality and change. The study is based on library resources and a review method. The research findings show that openness to experience, adjustments and accountability are among the five aspects of personality which have close relation with values. The important factors which influence value change are: globalization, individualism and dominance of modern thoughts. Therefore, mental norms and values change when changes occur in the relations of personal and social life. Education along with a fundamental religious view about the development of personality can contribute to preserving fundamental values from any change.
Key words: axiological system, personality, change, Islamic education.

An Inquiry into the Role of School in Cherishing Values

Soolmaz Rouhani, Ashraf Baqeri

Using an analytical approach and documentary survey, the present paper tries to briefly study the role which educational system plays in cherishing values, taking into consideration the role of instructor, learner, peers, the school atmosphere, and interaction between educational system and axiological system.
Human relations at school are among the important factors of fostering values. The learner and instructor are two main pillars of human relations and the latter plays an important role in ensuring the mental health of the learners. In the process of expounding the values, the learner harmonizes between his/her own group their demands, by assimilating the culture. Besides, the peers, pave the way for cherishing the values by establishing horizontal relation of the facilities of learning social skills.
The influence of teaching elements including the textbooks, instructor and evaluation method is considered one of principles of designing the curriculum. The values acquired by a learner at school will exert no influence, and the learners who undergo socialization will forget ideals they learned at school if these values are incompatible with those governing social relations.
Key words: value, education, human relations, curriculum, relations 

A Critique of Value Conceptualization according
to Dewey's Pragmatism and Its Educational Implications

Babak Shamshiri, mohammad Jawadi Nikoo

Axiology is one of the main disciplines of philosophy and philosophy of education. Basically, getting familiar with values is considered as the basis for philosophy of ethics and moral education. Every philosophical school of education provides its own explanation about the nature and criteria of values. This situation has led to developing a variety of models and theories in the sphere of moral education. The present paper tries to analyze and criticize the concept of value according to Dewey's pragmatism and its implications in the area of moral education.
 In this philosophical study an interpretive-descriptive approach is used. The research findings show that according to Dewey the basis of values are concealed in personal and social activity; that is, the domain of values has some direct and indirect pragmatic influence on the process of personal and social life. Such a belief leads to relativism in terms of values through rejecting values as being essential.
Key words: value, pragmatism, curriculum, teaching-learning method, evaluation.