The Renunciation of the Friends of God and Their Inattentiveness to This World(2)

Ayatollah Allameh Muhammad Taghi Mesbah



In this part of his supplication, Imam Sajjad (pbuh) complains about this world in which we are ensnared in its deceits and tricks. It is true that we enjoy worldly blessings like food and clothes and spend time on such things, but these things are obstacles to achieving everlasting otherworldly assets, because they are futile and delusive. The view held by those who consider this world as their ultimate aim and who are closely attached to this world for itself and its joys is of no avail because it hinders us from achieving otherworldly assets.

Despite the deception of this world, one can achieve otherworldly happiness in it through his voluntary acts and free will. This aim can be attained is possible only if one regards this world as a preliminary step towards perfection, servitude and devotion to service of God not as an end.


Key words: this world, deception of this world, man’s sublimity, examination.

A Review and Critique of Man’s Free Will from the Viewpoint of Ghazzali on the Basis of Mullah Sadra's Works

Marzieh Mohammad Alizade - Reza Akbarian



This paper seeks to investigate and explain Ghazzali's theories and criticize them on the basis of Mullah Sadra's views. Ghazzali does not present an accurate explanation of man’s free will and only resort to the outward aspects of Quranic and traditional documents. He regards that man’s freewill is incompatible with monotheism of God, divine knowledge and power and only seeks to prove God’s will. Thus, even if it is assumed that man has a share of free will, questions will arise about monotheism in creative power. For this reason, the issue of determinism is raised.  Mullah Sadra, on the other hand, considers man’s free will as a human factor and something connected with soul. He also believes that man is an agent by self-manifestation in as far as his internal acts are concerned and proves that his free will does not contradict divine priori knowledge and unity of Divine Acts. In Mullah Sadra's philosophy, the necessity of cause and effect by no means contradicts man’s free will. He accepts man’s free will and authority, yet he considers God as the proximate agent of man's acts.


Key words:  man’s free will, divine free will, agent by self-manifestation, Ghazzali, Mullah Sadr.

A Review of Ayatollah Mesbah’s View in Explaining the Rational Knowledge of God in the Quran

Qolamali Azizikia



The possibility and extent of having rational knowledge of God, proving the existence of God and presenting evidence about divine unity are among the important subjects of theology. Using a descriptive-analytical approach, this paper aims at reviewing and explaining Ayatollah Mesbah’s views about the mentioned issues in Quranic teachings. According to the view of Ayatollah Mesbah, having rational knowledge of God is possible and man can, within the limits of his comprehension, have knowledge of the Divine attributes which are referred to in Quranic verses and the Infallibles’ words. The Qur’an regards that the very idea of God’s existence requires no evidence, and does not consider it as a problem. However, there is an implicit argument in the Qur’an for God’s existence .The Quran repeatedly presents arguments for the unity of God, such as the argument in verse 22 of “Prophets” chapter. This argument bears no relation to the argument called “prohibition” and then it will be possible to prove the unity of God by preserving the stability of today's the world.


Key words: knowledge of God, acquired knowledge of God, theology in the Quran, the Quranic proof of God's existence, the Quranic proof of God’s unity, Ayatollah Mesbah.

Sensory Perception from Plato’s Viewpoint

Mojtaba Jalili Moghadam



Sensory perception, which is one of the most fundamental and controversial issues in philosophy and epistemology, assumes a new position in Plato’s idealistic and intellectualistic view. In Plato’s epistemology, real knowledge is unmistakable and within the area of platonic archetypes, which are unchangeable. However, sensory perception is not only mistakable, but it belongs to the changing perceptible world; therefore, it cannot be considered as true knowledge.

This paper seeks to investigate the possibility and role of sensory perception in Plato’s thought; a question which requires a close outlook towards Plato’s epistemology and ontology. The research results show that sensory perception is not only possible but it also constitutes an introduction to true knowledge because the perceptible world enjoys the world of ideas and has a position between existence and nonexistence, man as having a soul rather than mere sensory organs, as a knower and science as a recollection.


Key words: existence, platonic archetype, soul, knowledge, perceptible, sensory perception.

Explanation and Evaluation of the Epistemological Proofs of Those Opposing Religious Science

Muhammad Mahdavi



Religious science is an important and extensive subject. One of the main issues in the area of religious knowledge which is worth considering is the investigation of the epistemological proofs and flaws of those who oppose religious science .Therefore, according to the written works and initial induction and examination made in this regard, it has become explicit that the most important epistemological arguments of those who reject religious science, are:

1. Production of religious science does not account for defining knowledge as the” justifiable true belief”.

2. Impossibility of religious science in the stages of scientific research.

3. Relativism of science is concomitant with the notion of religious science.

A careful analysis of their arguments shows that their proofs for religious science are insufficient.  Some of these proofs are mere claims that are groundless and are incompatible with the realities of history of science and some are based on a kind of unsound reasoning. Finally, the reason their rejection of religious science is the mere claim related to the administration stage of realization of religious science and their unfamiliarity with Islamic sciences and teachings of Islam.


Key words: religious science, local science, epistemology, relativism.

A Review of the Theory of Observing the Quiddity of Correlation Philosophy

Hasan Mohiti Ardekan



The quiddity of correlation philosophy is one of the important issues which has been the special concern of philosophers. Due to the fact that this has developed in the West, naturally the quiddity of correlation philosophy should first be investigated from a western perspective. In this investigation, four kinds of correlation philosophy are examined: the philosophies correlated with science using a historical approach, the philosophies correlated with science using a rational approach, the philosophies correlated with facts using a historical approach and the philosophies correlated with facts using a rational approach.

The discussion also examines two other kinds: the philosophies correlated with science using a historical-rational approach and the philosophies correlated with facts using a historical –rational approach. Using a descriptive-analytical approach, this research tries to review and criticize this theory. It points out to the ambiguities, contradictions and the criticisms directed to it and that questions the idea of its validity and novelty.


Key words: correlation philosophy, science, the eighth title, historical approach, rational approach.

A review of the Relationship between Faith and Knowledge from the Viewpoint of Allameh Tabatabai Based on al-Mizan Commentary

Amr al-Allah Qolizade – Muhammad Ja’fari



ˮReligious faithˮ is one of the most important issues in religions in general and in Abrahamian religions in particular. The history of Islam shows that this issue is one of the most ancient ideological subjects with which the different Islamic sects have dealt. Using a descriptive-analytical approach and referring to the through a Quran, this paper seeks to investigate the relationship between faith and knowledge from the viewpoint of Allameh Tabatabai. It elucidates the meaning of faith and knowledge, then the adjuncts of faith and finally the relationship between faith and knowledge. Three kinds of relationship between the two are made known and the kind in which knowledge acts as an introduction and preliminary stage for achieving faith is considered as a sound one. Besides, the relationship of immediate knowledge with and faith and the possibility of attaining faith with doubt are also examined


Key words: knowledge, science, faith, al-Mizan, Allameh Tabatabai.

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