ABSTRACTS: Trans. Language Department of IKI


The Whispered Words of the Seekers of Access to the Deity (2):  Supplication in the View of Infallible Imams (peace be upon them)

Ayatollah 'Allamah Mohammad Taqi Misbah

The present paper seeks to elucidate Imam Sajjad's words in his supplication about seeking access and proximity to Glorified God. Since man is essentially poor, he has nothing on his own to give or seek nearness to God. Faith, too, is something which God bestows upon man. Due to his essential poverty, man cannot have the by which he gets nearer to God because the means must be presentable, besides the Glorified God is absolutely rich and in need of no  such things. Imam Sajjad (peace be upon him) states: "we have two means by which we have access and get nearer to God. They are the Holy Prophet's affection, mercy and courage which are the only means of drawing nigh to God and Infallible Imams' intercession.  
Key words: supplication, intercession, divine mercy, the infallible Imams (peace be upon them).


The Features of Ideal Demographic Policy-making in Iran

Ismail Noodeh Farahani, 'Abbas Maghami, Mahdiyyeh Kazemi Taklimi

The present paper classifies the views about "population growth" into three approaches of "population growth as an increase in the number seekers welfare", "population growth as an increase in manpower to contribute to development", and "population growth as an increase in the number of the Shi'a and Muslims". Then a kind of comparative-historical study is made to formulate an ideal demographic policy-making in Iran. Therefore, the main parts of this paper include a brief review of the existing approaches to demographic policy-making in such countries as England, India, Turkey, the Occupied Palestine and Lebanon; a historical review of demographic policies adopted after the victory of Islamic revolution from 1357 to 1384 (1978-2005); and a review of the reasons of failure of the reformative approach of government in the ninth and tenth terms with regard to other policies which have to do with the issue of higher education policies, macro-economic policies. . . .
The research findings are underlined with emphasis on the following contradictory statements: 1- Iran's population should increase; 2- the population of Capital should decrease; 3- decentralization policy has failed.
Key words: demographic policy-making, population growth, Iran's population, the decade of progress and justice.


The Necessities of the Change in Demographic Policy with Emphasis on the Role of National Media

Ibrahim Shafi'i Sarvestani

After twenty years of implementing the policy of population control, the system of the Islamic Republic of Iran is now revising it and adopting the policy of population growth due to different economic, social, cultural, political and security considerations. No doubt, the implementation of such a policy requires taking several measures in different fields, the most important of which are "culture-making" and directing the discourse of society from "population decline" to " population growth" Accordingly, national media as one of the most important instrument of culture-making in the country must contribute to this new demographic policy and use all its capacities to implement it, according to a precise, clear and timely program. First of all, the strategies and policies of the national media in this regard should be specified so that the executive activities and programs of national media may contribute to the achievement of the mentioned aims.
Key words: national media, demographic policy, management of message, lirth control, population growth.


Birth Control of the Shi'ah ; a Threat  to the Iranian Society of Iran (the Causes of Population Decline and Its Consequences)

Zahra Sookhtanloo & A'zam Rahmatabadi,

The present paper expounds the causes of population decline and its consequences. It aims at recognizing the policies of population control as a sociopolitical problem and providing ways of preventing to insure generation survival. Cultural means like propaganda, promotion of modernity, and following the hygienic policies of UNESCO in Islamic countries have furthered the political aims laid behind this trend, and such social contexts like promotion of delinquency, promotion of feministic views and divorce have reinforced it. Population control in Iran has brought unpleasant effects including weakness of defensive force, decrease in the number of elite and young manpower, demographic imbalance and threat to Shi'a school.
Key words: Shi'a, national security, policy of population control, consequences of population control.


Methodological and Epistemic Challenges in the Existing Demographic Studies

Forooq al-Sabah Shoja'noori, Farzaneh Shokri

The research works on population conducted along with rapid demographic changes in Iran has adopted different approaches. Using a meta-analysis method, the present paper reviews the studies on population conducted from 1370 to 1390 (1991- 2011) in the field of the human sciences in order to identify the methodological gaps and problems of these studies. To this end, 63 articles have been reviewed. The results of the meta-analysis show that %61.90 of all reviewed articles have a negative attitude about population growth. Furthermore, these studies have several defects and problems as far as research method in concerned. For example, %90.47 of them use a library and documentary method and lack sampling technique, %63.50 have unknown field of study, %53.97 lack hypothesis or research question and %57.15 lack analysis technique. Given these research findings, conducting extensive research on population growth or population decline, in which the methodological principles of scientific research are observed, will be worthwhile.
Key words: population, meta-analysis, population growth and decline.


An Inquiry into the Demographic Views, Opportunities and Challenges Facing the Cities, with Emphasis on Sustainable Development

Yunus Shakeri

The present paper seeks to review the demographic views, opportunities and challenges confronting the cities, that is, the issues which are discussed within the framework of logical relationship between population and cities and should be taken into account by municipal managers and planners in order to make better plans for cities and to serve the citizens. Some of the research findings are as follows: having an optimistic view on the population growth when the necessary conditions are available, a proper distribution of demographic space and establishing social justice in cities, and plans to increase the population of the country because it is aging in the coming years. Using a descriptive-analytical method and reviewing the relevant books, articles, reports and documents, the present paper examines different demographic views, opportunities and challenges and their effects on urban environment and provides modus operands for building great cities.
Key words: city, great city, demographic views, municipal services, sustainable development.


A Review of the Factors Influencing Fertility on the Bases of a Multi-level Approach

Mohammad Shiri, Taha Noorollahi, Elham Rostami

In recent decades, Iran has undergone considerable demographic changes. This important fact is manifested by the population growth rate by 3.9 percent from 1355 to 1365 (1976-1986) and population decline rate by 1.29 percent from 1385 to 1390 (2006- 2011). Fertility changes are the most important factor which contributes to explaining the changes in population growth. Regarding the provincial differences in fertility in Iran and the determining role of provincial changes in the future process of fertility, an investigation of the regional, social, economic and demographic features seems necessary for explaining fertility. Using a multi-level analysis method, the present paper mainly seeks to examine the role of provincial features in explaining fertility. The data used in this research are gathered from raw percentile data from a census in 1385 (2006) and are classified into personal and provincial levels.
The research findings indicate that the features of provincial level have fixed, random and significant effects on the regression coefficient of personal level in explaining fertility, in such as way that the mean rate of women's fertility is influenced by the fertility of the province and mean age of the women who are subject to fertility. Furthermore, these findings show an important fact, that is, the rate of the effect of women's educational level on fertility in those provinces in which the total mean of the number of children born alive is high, is significantly lower.
Key words: fertility, multi-level modeling, employment, family structure.


Secularization of Family and Its Effect on Population Decline

Seyyed Hamed 'Onvani

Along with the scientific revolutions and due to changes in such concepts as God, life and man; new moralities have been defined, common element of which is lack of spirituality. This trend, which is called "secular" attitude, provides a model of life according to which the relationship between individuals is centered on personal interest. The conflict between secularism and basis of man's life begins with a deviation in the philosophy of family existence and moves towards a change in the thrust of family members' duties, behavior and responsibilities by changing the direction of the aims of family formation in order to induce individuals to live separately, spouses to divorce and women to have emotional and economic independence. This trend directs people towards birth control. Using a descriptive-analytical method, the present paper tries to show that following this trend will cause the family to deviate from its rational path and threaten the population growth.
Key words: secularism, secularization of family, the rate of population decline, family institution, mothers' employment, divorce, celibacy.


A Study of the Effects of Rapid Population Growth on "Marriage Shortage" and Singleness among Girls

Mohammad Reza Hassani

The increase in marriage age and singleness, especially among girls, has been one of the obvious demographic changes in Iran since 1370 (1991). This problem has led to some structural changes, especially in the cultural and social areas; a problem which necessitates analysis and elaboration on this issue. Using an analytical method and existing figures, statistics and studies, the present paper seeks to make explicit some of the causes of the emergence of "marriage shortage" and singleness among girls, and explain some of their most important effects. The research findings show that inclination towards economic independence, pressure to enter university and labor market, weakness of moral commitment in the family relations, prevalence of unconventional relations, inclination towards crime and drug abuse, lack of identity and mental disorders can be regarded as possible outcomes of singleness among girls. Finally, the paper provides some suggestions and modus operands to decrease the bad effects of this problem.
Key words: population growth, age structure, demographic changes, marriage shortage, singleness among girls.